A Smart Arctic Future - Energizing a smart Arctic

Abstracts

  • 15:00 Renewable energy futures: Making coastal communities more viable?
    Authors: Hans-Kristian Hernes ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Berit Kristoffersen ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )

    NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.

    Hans Kristian Hernes (professor, UiT) and Berit Kristoffersen (associate professor, UiT)

     

    In this paper we explore methods and approaches towards of co-creating energy futures with coastal communities in Senja, Norway. Our point of departure is involvement in a project at Northern Senja where communities face lack of power grid stability and where current technological solutions are insufficient for the turn away from fossil fuels. Increased activity in the fishing industry, transportation, and booming tourist industry, and not least from new fishing will be particularly challenging.

    The current project by the supplier – Troms Kraft Nett – investigates the possibilities in new renewable energy and smart grid. This will make a major change; from power delivered by a regional grid to a system where local production and storage can solve todays challenges, and consumers may become producers and the role of consumers may turnaround to become producers. The project is unique in the Norwegian context; examples of smart systems are few in general and absent in remote, but still vibrant, coastal communities.

    Engaging with local actors and communities in Husøy and Senjahopen were part of the very first steps in the project where potential solutions to new grids and supply of energy to Northern Senja is being mapped (2018-ongoing). We argue that for the benefit of this involvement is twofold: For Troms Kraft these knowledge dialogues helps to map out specific needs of both the company and the communities, and for the communities it means that they can not only influence but also potentially co-design the project to the present and future desires and needs. The paper analyzes the first path of the (possible) process towards smarter energy solutions. What are the obstacles in the communities for a transition? How do they view the energy future? The communities of Husøy and Senjahopen pivots around fisheries, culturally and socio-economically, with a mix of traditional and new knowledge and technologies, where renewable energy can bring long-term solutions and thus viable future for the communities. The paper thus includes a discussion of how a transformation of energy systems fit with or challenge with the established view of societal development and sustainable resource management.

  • 15:30 Development of smart distributed renewable thermal power systems for cold climates
    Authors: Amir Safari ( Euro Energy Solutions AS - University of Stavanger ); Ali Madiseh ( The University of British Columbia ); Chunming Rong ( The University of Stavanger )

    Originating a research/innovation association on “integration of distributed thermal power systems including geothermal heat pump, solar thermal panel, and HVAC systems for smart buildings in cold climate countries” is the main goal of this research project.

    Geothermal heating/cooling systems are widely used as a reliable tool for extraction of renewable thermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. Distributed geothermal energy systems are aimed to achieve energy independency across a wide range of residential, commercial or industrial heating/cooling applications. In smart cold climate countries (e.g. Norway and Canada), integration of distributed geothermal systems into the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units of residential, commercial or industrial spaces can potentially lead to sizeable reductions in energy costs and carbon emissions. For an effective design and implementation of distributed geothermal systems, a profound understanding of the sustainability and the techno-economics of geothermal energy production is needed. Failure to do so could result in two common but seriously expensive mistakes. The first type is caused by overestimating the capacity of the resource leading to fast and premature asset depletion and significant drops in the performance of the ground-coupled heat pumps. In this case, the electric power consumed by the heat pump(s) will reject the feasibility of system. The second type of faulty design origins from underestimating the asset capacity that makes the return of capital investments impossible. To mitigate such issues, it is essential to establish amenable models for simulation of distributed geothermal systems in both resource (i.e. underground) and system (i.e. surface) levels.

    This talk, in particular, focuses on proposing utilization of the heat wasted through the exhaust stream of diesel generators and/or gas turbines on rock piles as temporary storage during low demand times. Communities situated in distant areas are deemed as ‘remote’ and have either very limited or no access to power grid lines. Therefore, most of these communities greatly depend on diesel/gas-burning for power and heat provision at all times. In this sense, seasonal thermal storage is a developing concept that can be an inexpensive solution to effectively manage the use of produced energy during a year. This could be considered as a part of the comprehensive research project in which better energy management of smart sustainable Arctic societies will be addressed.

  • 15:45 Resource Management for Smart Meter Using IEEE 802.15.4 Based Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.
    Authors: THI THUY NGA DINH ( The Arctic University of Norway ); Hoai Phuong Ha ( The Arctic University of Norway )

    NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.

    Smart grid is an advanced power infrastructure which delivers energy from suppliers to consumers by using bi directional communication to provide sustainable and efficient power services with advanced control and communications. Therefore, communication technologies in smart grids are very important in order to achieve its key features. Because of the increasing demands on electricity and reliable communications, traditional electric grid needs to be replaced with intelligent, robust, reliable and costly effective smart grid applications. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has a critical role to set up a reliable and costly effective smart electric power grid applications. Among several wireless technologies such as ZigBee over IEEE 802.15.4, Bluetooth, Wireless LAN (Wi-fi), WiMAX and GSM/GPRS, IEEE 802.15.4 is a potential technology which can be applicable for smart meter because of its power efficiency and reliability.

    This paper proposes a resource management design and implementation in IEEE 802.15.4-interfaced smart meter in Wireless Sensor Home Area Network (WSHAN). The IEEE 802.15.4 standard supports both contention-free and contention-based services. When beacon mode is enabled, guaranteed time slot (GTS) can provide contention-free access for delay-sensitive applications. However, directly applying GTS scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4 for resource management is not efficient in improving network performance. First, the improvement of GTS scheduling requires adding more bits and fields to IEEE 802.15.4 frames or more layers to Zigbee network stacks, this results in incompatibility problems with deployed products. Second, the smart meter fails to assess the exact bandwidth demand from sensors for optimal resource management; this results in the waste of network resources. This paper therefore proposes a resource management approach for improving the performance of IEEE 802.15.4- interfaced smart meter. The solution includes four extensions of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. First, sensors specify data size they have to transmit instead of number of GTSs in their GTS command frames. Second, the smart meter handles two separate queues: a GTS allocation queue and a GTS deallocation one. Third, the smart meter runs the optimal GTS scheduling algorithm and fourth, the sensor operates according to the power-saving algorithm. Extensive simulations show that the proposed approach significantly improves network performance in terms of power efficiency, bandwidth utilization and throughput while guaranteeing delay requirements for communication in smart grids.

  • 16:00 What is the best Climate Mitigation Option in terms of Energy Return on Investment between Carbon Capture and Storage and Renewable Electricity?
    Authors: Matteo Chiesa ( The Arctic University of Norway UiT ); Sgouris Sgouridis ( Khalifa University of Science and Technology )

    NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.

    Several studies, reflected in the reports from organizations like IEA and IPCC, consider carbon capture and storage (CCS) coupled with fossil fuel powered plants as a critical technology component in the portfolio of measures for reducing CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, the actual installed CCS capacity to date (110MWe by 2016) is so small that it raises concerns about  the capability of the technology to scale to levels that would provide a significant mitigation impact within the timeframe for de-carbonization involved in the Paris 2015 treaty. Conversely, renewable electricity (RE) installations, an alternative climate mitigation approach for the energy system, are currently deployed at a much greater scale with rapid expansion potential. This observation raises the question of whether CO2 emission reductions would be better accomplished by investing available resources in renewable technologies rather than in carbon sequestration from fossil fueled plants. In the present paper, we compare CCS and RE as electricity generation technology pathways using a physical metric, energy-return-on-energy-investment (EROEI). A generalizable methodology for deriving the EROEI of CCS projects accounting for their operational and infrastructural energy “penalties” is developed.  In order to make an equivalent comparison, we include energy storage to allow for fully dispatchable RE. We show that RE without storage, as is the case in its large-scale integration so far, outperforms coupled fossil/CCS implementations by EROEI. With storage, some low EROEI RE have an energy return comparable to that of high efficiency CCS but, overall, no significant advantage for CCS can be determined. Finally, we include ancillary considerations on the utilization pathway, geological, and infrastructural requirements to conclude that CCS as a power resource is unlikely to contribute significantly as a bridge for the transition effort. A more energetically effective approach to scale climate mitigation is simply to divert the resources that might have been used to deploy CCS for fossil powered systems to further expand RE (and storage) deployment. This is something that, in a Norwegian context, probably needs to be brought to light to fill the ongoing discussion.  

  • 16:15 Solar energy in Tromsø works better than you may think!
    Authors: Tobias Boström ( UiT )

    NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.

    Many people do not believe that utilizing solar energy in Tromsø or Northern Norway is a good idea, that it is too dark and cold here. It is precisely this myth that I want to bust, and I believe we actually have managed to bust, thanks to data from our solar energy system at UiT.

    Is cold temperature a problem? Actually, the colder it is, the higher is the efficiency of solar cells. If the temperature is lowered by 20 degrees, we in fact get a 10% relative increase in efficiency. So while it is true that it is cold in Tromsø, this is actually positive for the utilization of solar power! 

    The second part of the myth says that it is dark in Tromsø, and this is clearly true. We have very little sunlight in the period November to January, and we get no power from solar cells during this time. But what is most interesting is the annual solar power potential in Tromsø. How much solar energy do we have per year compared to, for example, Oslo or Germany?

    To answer that question, we installed a solar energy system at UiT's campus here in Tromsø. The system has now been in operation for over a year and we have achieved excellent results. Compared with Oslo, we only get about 15% less solar power in Tromsø seen over an entire year.

    When comparing the annual energy yield from standard modules at an optimal tilt angle, we get 850 kWh/kW in Tromsø, Oslo receives about 1 000 kWh/kW, while Bergen with more clouds and rainfall gets less than 750 kWh/kWh. It is interesting to compare these numbers with Germany, which is the country with the most installed solar energy per capita. Northern Germany has quite cloudy weather and get about the same as in Tromsø, 850 kWh/kW and year. Southern Germany has better weather and is best compared to Oslo, both receives around 1000 kWh / kW and year. We can conclude that that difference in annual solar energy potential in Europe is not so much related to the latitude but rather the local weather.

Science Science

Thursday 24th January 2019

15:00 - 16:45

Clarion Hotel The Edge - Kjøpmannskontoret

Add to Calendar 2019-01-24 15:00 2019-01-24 16:45 Europe/Oslo A Smart Arctic Future - Energizing a smart Arctic Clarion Hotel The Edge - Kjøpmannskontoret

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