Resilient Arctic societies and industrial development - Industrial development and indigenous rights
- 09:00 FEATURED TALK: Imbalanced power? Indigenous-industry relations in Arctic renewable energy
Authors: Else Grete Broderstad ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Hans-Kristian Hernes ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Greg Poelzer ( University of Saskatchewan )
Else Grete Broderstad, Hans-Kristian Hernes, and Greg Poelzer
Abstract: Industrial resource development on Indigenous lands is often a venue for the clash between traditional use of renewable resources and large-scale economic development of non-renewable and renewable resources. The past two decades have demonstrated that industrial resource development does not always mean a zero-sum game; indeed, Indigenous peoples in some counties have entered numerous benefit sharing arrangements that have not only generated increased wealth at the community level, but also facilitated greater opportunities to pursue traditional harvesting. With greater efforts made by national governments to mitigate global warming and to meet targets of the Paris Agreement, national and regional governments are increasing investments in the development of new, and the expansion of existing, renewable energy projects. The generation, transmission, and distribution of green electrical power is leading, in many instances, to new clashes between Indigenous land users and industrial development. Can the lessons from the extractive industries, particularly the concept of benefit-sharing, also apply to electric power sector?
This paper focuses on the question of benefit sharing and electric power through an examination of two cases – the state-owned utility company, SaskPower Corporation in Saskatchewan, Canada and the privately owned Finnmark Kraft AS in Norway. The empirical analyses will be structured around the concepts of benefit and equity sharing. Benefit sharing, referred to in international hard and soft law, has been linked to indigenous peoples’ rights to land and resources. By drawing on the Equity Framework of McDermott et al (2012), we will discuss the process by which equity is defined, the goal of equity, who counts, and what counts in evaluating equity. Dimensions as “procedural”, equal access to decision-making, “distributive”, concern fair distribution of resources with regard to the conditions of benefit sharing in indigenous-industry relations.
 This work is part of the research project The Arctic governance triangle: government, Indigenous peoples and industry in change (TriArc), funded by the Research Council of Norway.
- 09:30 Re-use of mining legacies: A comparative study in the Arctic.
Authors: Camilla Winqvist ( KTH Royal Institute of Technology )
In this paper I will present my dissertation project. The aim of my project is to find out how, why and under which circumstances that legacies of a resource extractive past can be re-used. Re-use can be many things: re-opening, cultural heritage, use of the historical mining operations to promote new ones etc. I will examine some historical cases of re-use of mining legacies from different parts of the Arctic; Sweden, Svalbard and Canada. Mining operations always come to an end, and how to handle the remains of a mine is an important question that demands consideration. The historical handling of mine closures can hopefully guide present mining companies to think differently about what a mine should become after operations have stopped, and what that mine meant to the mining community.
In my dissertation, I am comparing cases from the Arctic, of which I will present one of my cases from the Gällivare area in Northern Sweden at the conference.
My project is a part of the larger Resource Extraction and Sustainable Arctic Communities (REXSAC) project.
- 09:45 Consultations and FPIC - new tools for indigenous peoples?
Authors: Hans-Kristian Hernes ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
States and indigenous peoples have a troublesome relationship, not least due to uneven resources and a history of colonialism and the majority suppressing the minority. This is a challenge in the Arctic and Northern areas where new industrial development increase the challenges on indigenous peoples. Efforts to improve the relationship and secure the role of indigenous peoples have been thriving, not least by international law and conventions. The 2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) continues to be a hallmark, also by renewing the emphasis on tools like free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) and consultations.
Norway is among the few countries that have ratified ILO Convention no 169, a convention that has been important in the development of consultations between the Norwegian state and the Norwegian Sami Parliament. Consultations have become a crucial part of the relationship, and given the Sami Parliament an important tool to participate in political and administrative processes. Consultations are however also challenging, not least in cases related to new industries.
In the paper, I first make a presentation the formalization of consultation as part of Sami politics in Norway. The following discussion has two paths. One where consultations – in the ILO 169 framework – are discussed from a principal, or theoretical, point of departure. Based on this, the second part is an effort to summarize the strengths and weaknesses on consultations as a tool for indigenous peoples. By doing this, the intention is to put forward some general experience of relevance for implementation of UNDRIP and the principle of free, prior and informed consent, but also to illuminate challenges for development in Arctic and Northern areas.
- 10:00 Industrial development in the North - Sami indigenous interests between globalization and self-governance
Authors: Vigdis Nygaard ( Norut ); Per Selle ( University of Bergen ); Elisabeth Angell ( Uni research )
Sami local communities and livelihoods in Norway have experiences tremendous changes. Increased mobility act as driving forces for change. An increasing number of Sami people experience a decoupling from their traditional territories and specific Sami industries like reindeer herding, and small-scale fjord fishing and agriculture. Change is also evident in the traditional rural Sami areas. Here we find a weak private sector but increased employment in public sector made possible by the growth of the Norwegian welfare state. The inland communities with a majority of Sami population furthermore benefit from a strong Sami institutional building and work opportunities. Others, and particularly Sami coastal communities, do not have such institutions and diversity of work opportunities. Subsequently, such communities are in urgent need of new industrial activities to survive and develop in a sustainable way. The question is; can development of new resource based industries form an alternative path of development for these Sami communities?
Global demand of natural resources and the Norwegian Northern policy of increased extraction of natural resources goes hand in hand. Offshore petroleum development, new mining projects and wind power developments are all examples of novel industrial initiatives on territories of traditional Sami land and sea use. Sami reindeer herding utilizes almost all land, and traditional Sami fjord, river and sea fishing depend on access to the resources, as well as a clean water and environment. This is a typical conflict were new industrial development with the potential of supporting new employment and diversified business milieu in a fragile local society, clash with the interests of and conditions for future traditional Sami livelihoods. To study such a conflict between global industrial development and sustainable business development in Norwegian rural areas of indigenous people, is of particular interest due to the strong legal position of the Sami indigenous people in Norwegian law without territorial rights.
This paper reveals the tension between modernity and tradition in Sami local communities meeting new industrial development. The spatial context of the study is Finnmark County where were the traditional reindeer herding is most extensive. I have selected a typical traditional Sami coastal community of Kvalsund municipality as a case to exemplify tensions spelled out in politics and arguments for future sustainable local communities when a new mining project is under planning. The purpose of this study is to reveal different Sami positions on future business development in rural Sami areas.
Thursday 25th January 2018
09:00 - 10:30