Aquaculture in the high north in times of change - Coexistence in coastal waters - benefits and challenges offered Part 1
- 09:00 FEATURED TALK: Coexistence in coastal waters - benefits and challenges offered
Authors: Karin Kroon Boxaspen ( Institute of Marine Research )
The Norwegian coastal zone is a challenging area to govern. The variance form inner fjords to outer coastal areas and the south to north axis and differences from temperate to boreal environment means that not all approaches fit everywhere.
The pressure from human activities increases and raises important fundamental questions regarding management of biological values and nature habitats in the coastal zone. Focus areas like pollution, climate changes and overall effects on fish populations, plankton, macroalgae, crustaceans and sea mammals are all studied to address the issue.
There are many different user groups for any given area. Commercial and leisure fisheries, transport, aquaculture, tourism and leisure activities do all need space. There is a general challenge to let these coexist and area conflicts do easily arise. Access and use need to be regulated in an optimal way.
What kind of activities can coexist and where, where do we need one user area, where can they overlap and especially where can they interact in a beneficial manner?
To answer these questions, we need a toolbox with appropriate methods to describe and study the effects of human activities over time. The successive development of suitable indicators or proxies and politically agreed upon thresholds for acceptable impact is a vital part of the process towards a legislative framework for good management practise.
The benefits of optimal use of area in our coastal zone are high and need our full attention to be taken to its fullest potential. The challenges thus need to be addressed by all in a fruitful manner.
- 09:30 Promises, promises... The use of licences to manage Norwegian Salmon Aquaculture
Authors: Eirik Mikkelsen ( Nofima ); Bjørn Hersoug ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway / Nofima )
Norwegian salmon aquaculture has come a long way since its beginnings in the 1960s and 70-ies. From small-scale operations run by one person to today’s industry dominated by international companies with hundreds of millions of Euro in turnover. Along the way, the industry’s impacts have also changed a lot. This includes on local and national economy and employment, and not least the environmental impacts and risks. To try to manage the impacts and risks, salmon aquaculture requires a license from the state. These have been issued in license rounds. With increasing profitability in the industry, the competition for the licenses have increased. The rounds have been announced with varying objectives or concerns that the authorities want to achieve and the licensees to contribute to. These have included to combat fish disease or salmon lice, or to promote innovation, rural development or small companies, to name some.
The cost of getting a licence has varied over time, geography and type of license. Some actors have obtained large windfall gains by selling their granted license to others. This has clearly influenced later license rounds. Auctions have supplemented the previous praxis of fixed licence prices, and limitations on moving licenses have sometimes been set.
We present an analysis of the objectives in the licensing rounds announced from 2002 to 2013. We consider how each round of licenses have incorporated various central concerns, and how political motivations of shifting governments have influenced this. We also investigate to what extent conditions for awarded licenses are controlled and monitored by the authorities and if and how any breaches have been sanctioned. We conclude by discussing if the licencing system is a suitable instrument for meeting the objectives that the authorities have for the aquaculture industry in Norway.
- 09:45 How is Ecosystem-Based Management entering Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning, and how will it affect Aquaculture Development?
Authors: Arild Buanes ( Norut ); Eirik Mikkelsen ( Norut ); Håkan T. Sandersen ( Nord University )
New or expanded space for aquaculture production is in Norway set aside through municipal-led coastal zone planning (CZP) according to the Planning and Building Act (PBA). Ecosystem-based approaches has increasingly been emphasized for marine resource management. This paper analyses the extent to which ecosystem-based management considerations are present in Norwegian CZP; in planning documents and/or processes. Our analysis is based on a study of recent inter-municipal CZP in Nordland and Troms counties in North Norway. Many Norwegian municipalities cover rather small areas. Because of this, inter-municipal planning may be seen as “scaling-up” coastal zone planning to an ecologically more relevant scale. Inter-municipal planning may be said to represent an “ecosystem shift” compared to single-municipality planning.
The PBA does not mention ecosystem or ecosystem-based management. Still, some have seen it as an already established demand also on CZP, for example in the 2012 conclusions of the largest (to date) Norwegian research project on integrated CZP. Through coastal zone planning the territorial regulations of municipalities is aligned with the functional management of national sectoral policies, some of which pursue more explicitly stated EBM ambitions. Since 1990 there has been an continually evolving demand for environmental impact assessments, including for establishing larger aquaculture facilities since 1997. From 2015, environmental impact assessments must be done in the CZP phase for proposed aquaculture areas. Such knowledge is introduced into the planning process which is mandated by the PBA to include broad popular participation, but also a growing reliance on presumably expert knowledge on ecosystem function and structure. This may - in the absence of properly facilitated science communication - exacerbate “knowledge wars” in planning and management.
The experiences from the recent planning processes will serve as a background to highlight challenges and possibilities emanating from a recent revision (2017) of the environmental impact assessment regulations, now demanding that also impacts on “ecosystem services” must be assessed. Due to the novelty of this requirement, it remains to be seen what this entails in practice. To clarify the probable implications of this is important for assessing the potentials for further aquaculture development in the north, and elsewhere in Norway.
- 10:00 Impact assessments in Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning
Authors: Eirik Mikkelsen ( NOFIMA ); Patrick Berg Sørdahl ( NOFIMA ); Sanne Bech Holmgaard ( NIKU ); Bente Sundsvold ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
Coastal zone planning (CZP) processes in Norway must since 2015 include impact assessment of proposed aquaculture areas (and similar which may have "significant impact on environment and society"). The assessments must consider possible impacts on resources, interests and stakeholders; In academic and government publications this is increasingly often coined ecosystem services. There is not a standard method to do impact assessments in CZP in Norway. Various IA guidelines and methods have been used for different CZP processes. Impact assessments should be structured and transparent to ensure legitimacy of the process and its outcome. For efficiency in the prioritizations and trade-offs made, the methods to determine and value possible impacts must be harmonized. This should be both across proposed aquaculture areas/localities in one CZP process, and across different CZP processes.
This paper analyses the methods and outcomes of impact assessments in two inter-municipal CZP processes in Norway. They involved 13 and 5 municipalities, and 109 and 34 aquaculture areas that were impact assessed, respectively.
We consider the systematic approach described for these two CZP processes. We analyse the methods to assign value to various resources and interests and to consider impacts (of aquaculture) to see if some classes or types of ecosystem services are considered more or less objective, that is, based on verified or verifiable data, and with clear valuation/assessment rules. Further, we also analyse the overall outcome of the IA process for each area/locality, to assess to what degree there seems to be consistency in each CZP process and across the two processes regarding valuation, prioritization and trade-offs.
- 10:15 Forecasting the impact of salmon lice on wild salmonids, setting the stage for sustainable growth in salmon aquaculture
Authors: Mari Myksvoll ( Institute of Marine Research ); Anne Sandvik ( Institute of Marine Research )
The Norwegian government has decided that the aquaculture industry shall grow, given that the growth is environmentally sustainable considering the impacts of salmon lice on wild salmonids. Salmon lice infestation pressure has traditionally been monitored through catching wild fish on specific predefined locations. Despite that a substantial dataset has been collected this way over the years, the Norwegian coast is too long and the variations too large for efficient sampling of the entire coast. We have therefore developed an operational salmon lice model, which calculates the infestation pressure all along the coast in near real-time based on a hydrodynamical ocean model and a salmon lice particle tracking model. With regards to quality, we will show good comparisons between model and observations for both hydrographic properties and salmon lice dispersion when evaluated against observations on wild caught trout. By using two complimentary data sources; the operational model and wild fish data, we can provide an improved monitoring system for assessing risk and sustainability which forms the basis for knowledge-based advice to management authorities.
Thursday 25th January 2018
09:00 - 10:30