- 15:00 Removing microplastic particles from samples with high organic matter content: a countrywide investigation of sewage sludge produced across Norway
Authors: Amy Lusher ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) ); Rachel Hurley ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) ); Marianne Olsen ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) ); Christian Vogelsang ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) )
Developing methods to investigate the presence of microplastics in the aquatic environment began later than those for the marine environment. The extraction of microplastics from complex matrices rich in organic matter, such as sludge samples, are inefficient particularly for the micro-scale size range and the procedures are ineffective. Furthermore, the lack of standardized methods for sampling and analysis complicates the comparison between the relatively few sludge studies available worldwide.
NIVA were given the task to develop appropriate methods to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise microplastic or microparticles in sewage sludge. Samples were collected from various wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Norway, applying different wastewater and sludge treatment technologies and compare the results. WWTPs were selected to cover the three-main domestic WWTP categories in Norway and the main applied sludge treatment processes. As the general sludge characteristics are very dependent on the applied technologies, both for wastewater and sludge treatment, it was first necessary to identify the most appropriate and time-effective methods for analyzing collected samples. Fenton’s reagent was used to remove organic matter and density separations were employed to extract microplastics from sludge samples. Results will be discussed under the framework of method development and inter-site comparisons. Plastics were found in all ten sludge samples investigated from eight WWTPs. The overall average plastic abundance was 6,077 particles kg-1 (d.w.) (1,701 – 19,837) or 1,176,889 particles m-3 (470,270 – 3,394,274). Based on the average microplastic abundance and the present application of sewage sludge in Norway, it was estimated that over 500 billion microplastics are released into the environment via sewage sludge application each year, to agricultural soils, green areas and soil producers. This likely represents a significant source of microplastics to terrestrial and eventually in marine systems.
- 15:00 Microplastic ingestion in sexual maturing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
Authors: André S Bogevik ( Nofima AS, Bergen ); Katrin Vorkamp ( Aarhus University ); Erik Burgerhout ( Nofima AS, Tromsø ); Helge Tveiten ( Nofima AS, Tromsø ); Velmurugu Puvanendra ( Nofima AS, Tromsø )
Plastic pollution is an increasing problem in the world’s oceans. Microplastic is defined as particles of plastic less than 5 mm, and could originate from components intentionally manufactured at microscopic size or from plastic debris degraded in the ocean. These particles are ingested either by non-selective filter feeders at lower trophic level, at higher trophic levels through passive feeding or mistaken feeding of microplastics as natural prey or feeding of microplastic contaminated prey.
In the PlastiCod project, sexual maturing farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed two diets, one with the inclusion of 1% microplastic particles and the other without microplastics. The microplastic particles had been placed in the sea (Oslofjord) for 4 months prior the experiment, to obtain realistic conditions, including the potential sorption of organic contaminants. In general, higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were found in the fish feed than in the microplastic particles. The diets were fed to male and female cod in duplicate tanks from early maturation until spawning at Nofima’s Center for Marine Aquaculture in Tromsø, Norway. Biometric data and samples were obtained at the start of the experiment and at three consecutive time points prior to spawning in spring 2018. Whole fish samples of males and females were analyzed for POPs at each time point. Spawning data was collected throughout the spawning season from both groups. From selected spawners of each dietary group eggs were stripped, incubated and the performance of larvae to day 60 post hatch was observed. No major differences were observed in spawning performance, and adult and larval morphometric data between different groups. Preliminary data analysis does not suggest differences in POP levels between the fish groups either. Further, the differential effects of MP in maturing Atlantic cod and their offspring on nutritional, endocrine and gene expression levels are studied. Selected results will be presented at the conference.
- 15:00 Simulated pathways of microplastics into the Arctic Ocean
Authors: Knut-Frode Dagestad ( MET Norway ); Göran Broström ( University of Gothenburg ); Jon Albretsen ( Norwegian Institute of Marine Research ); Trond Kristiansen ( NIVA )
We have simulated the drift of plastic particles into the Arctic Ocean from selected source locations in the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Simulations are run over several years, using a state-of-the-art ocean drift model forced by appropriate ocean models, and including wind forcing for accurate calculation of drift in the upper few meters of the ocean. Sensitivity studies are performed to quantify the importance of this wind-forcing.
Simulations are also performed with two different trajectory models (OpenDrift and PyLadim) to investigate the soundness and sensitivity of the results with respect to the models used.
We analyse the spatial distribution of microplastics, and calculate residence times. We find that there is a significant transport of plastic particles into the Barents Sea with beaching on Novala Zemlja and Svalbard. Contrasting an earlier study we find that plastic particles leave Barents Sea on a relatively fast time scale and that Barents Sea may not be considered as the fifth large garbage patch in the world oceans.
- 15:00 The Impact of Marine Plastic on the Arctic Seas and their Ecosystem Services
Authors: Nicola Beaumont ( Plymouth Marine Lab ); Jannike Falk-Andersson ( SALT ); Tara Hooper ( Plymouth Marine Lab ); Tenaw Abate ( NORUT ); CLAUDIA HALSBAND ( NIVA )
This paper reviews the literature researching the impact of marine plastics on the Arctic environment, demonstrating a significant bias in the research towards birds and plastic abundance. A novel translation of these ecological impacts into ecosystem service impacts enables the understanding of not only the ecological impacts, but also the impacts on ecosystem service provision and in turn human wellbeing. The results evidenced a decline in ecosystem service provision, including a decline in the capacity for food provision, raw materials, recreational, bequest and existence values, and symbolic and spiritual benefits. It was also found that the plastics had a notable negative impact on the supporting services which underpin the provision of all benefits.
- 15:00 Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on physiology of biota: A review
Authors: Tanja Kögel ( Institute of Marine Research ); Michael S. Bank ( Institute of Marine Research ); Marte Håve ( UniResearch - NORCE ); Ørjan Bjorøy ( Institute of Marine Research ); Marc Berntssen ( Institute of Marine Research ); Monica Sanden ( Institute of Marine Research )
Recent marine plastic investigations have reported the role and importance of smaller particles in biological exposures. Specifically, researchers have shown that smaller particles are more numerous and may be more bioavailable compared to larger particles. Small-scale plastic particles have also been observed in marine fish fillet tissue and larger particles have been found in the liver and the feet of mussels, demonstrating that the intestinal tracts are not the only organ where plastic particles can be found.
Effects of micro- and nanoplastics have been investigated in several organisms inhabiting heterogeneous environments. Here we present a literature review of the effects of micro- and nanoplastics on organism physiology across a taxonomic gradient, under different laboratory conditions and across aquatic habitats. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the literature and to identify knowledge gaps to develop guidelines for plastic contamination surveillance in support of seafood safety and human health risk assessment.
A synthesis of the literature showed that toxicity of plastics was highly variable and increased with decreasing particle size, longer exposure times and higher doses. Polymer types, weathering, species type and developmental stages of biota were also important parameters influencing plastic toxicity.
Furthermore, a review of the literature has shown the potential of plastic pollution at micro- and nanoscales to reduce feeding activity, energy reserves and nutritional status, and to prolog gut residence times. Growth, reproduction, survival, inflammatory status and predator avoidance mechanisms may also be affected by plastic particle exposure. These direct and indirect effects likely occur at cellular, individual and population levels. First mechanistic insight points towards interactions with lipid transport and metabolism dynamics.
Although we identify potential effects of plastic pollution for different size fractions, plastic toxicity and relative doses at which effects may occur still remain poorly understood or unknown. Comparison of quantitative evidence of plastic particles in different matrices is hampered by overall reliability, different sampling, extraction and measurement methods, and by reporting in different categories, both according to shape, polymer type, particles size and units applied (e.g. mass versus particle numbers). Future research should focus on harmonizing laboratory studies on physiological effects utilizing environmental realistic exposure regimes for toxicity testing.
- 15:00 What did our dinner have for lunch?: Analysing plastics by dissolving fish guts from Atlantic cod
Gadus morhua and saithe Pollachius virens from the west coast of Iceland.
Authors: Adriana Neeltje de Vries ( University Centre of the Westfjords ); Pernilla Carlsson ( NIVA and University Centre of the Westfjords )
In the 1950s, plastic became a revolutionary new material due to its durability, flexibility, low costs, lightweight and corrosive resistance. Unfortunately, plastics end up in the marine environment making up between 60-80% of the marine litter. This pollution may cause economic losses in for example tourism and municipality management. Additionally, organisms that encounter plastic debris may become entangled or ingest particles, often leading to reduced fitness and mobility. Norwegian and Canadian studies has shown the presence of microplastics in fish guts with an occurrence rate around 3%. Although the fishing industry has been, and still is, an important economic factor in Iceland, research related to debris in the marine food web around Iceland is very limited with no research performed on microplastics in fish. This study investigated the occurrence of microplastics in Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens) from the west coast of Iceland. The biological tissue was digested using a 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution at a ratio of 1:6 w/w with an incubation period of 24 hours at 60°C. This was followed by an addition of citric acid to neutralise the KOH followed by a settlement period of another 24 hours at room temperature. The solution was then filtered before visual analysis by a stereomicroscope. A total of 86 samples (39 cods and 47 saithes) were analysed. Observed plastics were placed in categories (film, filament, foam, fragment or fibre), measured in the longest diameter, and described by colour and shapes. Results from the visual analysis will be confirmed by n-IR. In addition to the digestion method, an additional 34 cod and 39 saithe were dissected manually and the gut content sieved using plentiful water. Further results will be presented at Arctic Frontiers. The present study kept a high focus on quality assurance known to be an analytical issue, especially when the work is carried out in smaller laboratories with little resources. The process here shows that also smaller laboratories can be able to analyse at least certain types of microplastics, which is very useful for evaluation and quantification of microplastics in biota.
- 15:00 Biovalorisation of marine raw rest materials: Towards the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymers
Authors: Cláudia Henriques ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ); Catarina S. S. Oliveira ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ); Bruno C. Marreiros ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ); Runar G. Solstad ( Nofima AS ); J. Johannes Eksteen ( NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS ); Maria A. M. Reis ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa )
Although being a key source of environmental pollution and especially harmful for the oceans, plastics remain a key component of contemporary society. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are versatile microbial polyesters that are receiving an increasing amount attention from industry due to their excellent biodegradable properties, thus posing a valuable alternative to conventional plastics. Marine raw rest materials (MRRM) are an abundant and underutilised resource in Norway, that may be used as cheap feedstock for the production of PHAs with potentially unique properties. Their production by mixed microbial consortia (MMC) is a known alternative for potential lowering PHA production costs, as it allows the use of waste/by-products as feedstock.
The presented work is within the scope of a joined project, NewPolySea, between NOVA.FCT (Portugal) and various Norway partners, which intends to address the demand for eco-friendly technologies by establishing biovalorisation processes for converting low-value MRRM into high-value bioproducts. The study presented here aims at assessing the potential for obtaining organic acids (HOrgs, precursor for PHA production), from different types of peptones obtained from proteinaceous MRRM.
The different peptones were attained through enzymatic hydrolyses of salmon-based raw rest materials by Nofima AS. After hydrolysis and enzyme deactivation, the hydrolysates were subsequent separated by centrifugation to yield three phases; a sediment (discarded), a peptone-rich water phase; and an oil phase. The peptone phase was concentrated by evaporation before spray drying. Four different peptones were tested in this study. Initially, the peptones were fully characterised in terms of average molecular weight, protein content, salinity, conductivity, and total nitrogen content.
A series of preliminary small-scale acidogenic batch assays were carried out with granular anaerobic sludge, using the four different peptones and following the guidelines from IWA Anaerobic Digestion Specialist Group. The aim was to gauge each of the peptones’ susceptibility to acidogenic fermentation, and identifying the one with the highest potential for HOrgs production in continuous mode.
The results obtained so far suggest that salmon peptones, produced using different hydrolysis procedures, can eventually yield PHA production of feedstocks with significantly different HOrgs profiles. Moreover, based on their HOrgs profiles, the four peptones would yield considerably dissimilar PHA polymers in terms of mechanical and physical characteristics. Consequently, each could be a potential interesting source for PHA production towards different polymer applications.
- 15:00 Pathways of Microplastics: from Siberian South to the Arctic North
Authors: Ksenia Korobchenkova ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Alexandra Ershova ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Denis Alexeev ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Every year millions of tonnes of plastic move from the land into the ocean, with some finding its way into remote areas, such as the Polar Regions. It is relatively easy to determine the source of marine macrolitter (discarded fishing gear, tourism or costal areas), however, micro-particles and fibers need a deeper study. Plastic waste (mainly fibrous microplastics and polyester) from Europe and Russia eventually ends up in the Arctic due to ocean circulation patterns. However, their origins and pathways remain unclear.
Present study was devoted to the preliminary assessment of microplastic pollution of the source of one of the largest Arctic rivers - Ob. Surface waters of a pristine and untouched Lake Teleckoye were investigated for the first time in July 2018.
Lake Teletskoye is a unique UNESCO heritage site and one of the largest reservoirs of pure fresh water in Russia, located in the North-East of the Altai mountains and is part of the Altai Reserve. The water quality of Lake Teletskoye is estimated as “very clean”. The lake is very narrow, deep and elongated, with over 70 rivers flowing into the lake, and only one flowing out – the Biya river, that merging with the Katun forms the Ob - one of the main arteries in the Russian Arctic bringing many harmful substances to the Kara Sea.
Method of research was based on a combination of international methods on microplastics sampling, with a man-made filtering instrument (tube and 100 µm cell “gauze” filter). Due to high clarity of water hundreds of liters were poured through the filter. Samples were analyzed with a microscope.
Analysis showed that microplastic particles were present in all samples (in total, 15 particles in 4 samples, mostly microfibers of various colours) both in near-shore samples and samples taken at the centre of the lake 30 km away from the settlements, despite the limited economic activity (there are only 2 little coastal villages). Two main sources of plastic litter were identified: leftover wastes from tourists and input of particles with wastewaters (microfibers).
Results showed that this research topic is relevant and important for Lake Teletskoye and requires further study not only for the lake itself but also for the Ob River for a more complete understanding of the migration pathways of microplastics with river flow into the Arctic seas.
- 15:00 GoJelly: A gellatinous solution to a plastic solution - Modelling of jellyfish biomass as a ressource for filtering microplastics
Authors: Lionel Eisenhauer ( SINTEF OCEAN )
Microplastics are a potential threat to the food web in the marine environment as the size range corresponds a major fraction of food items targeted by grazing and phagotrophic plankton species. Ways to reduce microplastic emissions, primarily from land to the marine environment, is therefore of interest. The GoJelly project (H2020) aims at developing a biofilter for water treatment based on jellyfish mucus able to trap nano- and microparticles. In conjunction with local increasing jellyfish blooms in many coastal areas, assessment and predictive methods for estimating jellyfish blooms as an exploited future ressource at sustainable levels must be developed. An eularian implementation of a scyphozoan jellyfish life-cyle in the SINMOD ecosystem model and a case study for the deep sea holopelagic species Periphylla periphylla (Péron&Lesueur, 1809) is presented. Consequences on the varying jellyfish biomass levels on the mesozooplankton grazer biomass available to important planktivorous fish and fish larvae along the Norwegian coast are dicussed.
- 15:00 Degradation of plastic microfibres, leaching of additive chemicals and interaction with persistent organic pollutants in polar environments
Authors: Lisbet Sørensen ( SINTEF Ocean ); Shannen Sait ( NTNU ); Torbjørn Nguyen ( NTNU ); Alexandros Asimakopoulos ( NTNU ); Rudolf Schmid ( NTNU ); Iurgi Salaverria ( NTNU ); Andy Booth ( SINTEF Ocean )
Synthetic microplastic fibres (MPFs) are increasingly being reported as one of the dominant forms of microplastic pollution in aquatic environments. Clothing and textiles produced from synthetic fibres such as polyester (PES), polyacrylic (PAC) and nylon (PA) are considered some of the main sources of MPFs. However, there has been little focus on the environmental fate of MPFs, especially in polar regions where there is often no wastewater treatment. The MICROFIBRE project is investigating the environmental fate and effects of the most commonly used synthetic fibres; polyacrylic (PAN), polyamides (nylon) and polyester (PES), together with a natural fibre (wool) as a control, in polar and temperate aquatic environments. MPFs have be generated from pristine yarns in lengths matching those observed for MPFs released from domestic washing machines during washing of synthetic textiles (ca. 1-3 mm x 10-20 µm). Comprehensive physicochemical characterization of the fibres has been conducted, including investigation of organic and metal additive contents. Long-term degradation studies, investigating the effect of UV radiation and mechanical abrasion on the physical and chemical stability of fibres are being conducted under a range of temperatures, including under Arctic marine conditions (5°C). Furthermore, the possibility of MPFs acting as vectors for toxic chemicals is being studied. This is approach includes both the release of intrinsic MPF additive chemicals leaching into seawater and freshwater and also the interaction of different MPFs with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) already ubiquitously present in the environment. We will present results that show how temperature, salinity and polymer type all have significant impacts on the extent of both processes.
- 15:00 Waste Management System in Russia
Authors: Ludmila Ivanova ( Kola Science Centre ); Galina Kharitonova ( Kola Science Centre )
Russia is the world's largest sea power, having direct access to 12 seas of three oceans (the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic). Within the general intensification of maritime activities, the Russian fleets undoubtedly contribute negatively to pollution of the Global Ocean. One of the efficient tools of solving the pollution problem is development of a legal framework for maritime navigation and protection against pollution of water areas and sea coasts. Therefore Russia has joined various international universal and regional legal acts. Besides Russia is a member of the Arctic Council and supports a number of projects aimed at protection of the marine environment.
Within the country the state policy in the field of waste management, including legal regulation of pollution of marine areas and coasts is based on the Federal law “On Environmental Protection” and the Federal law “On Production and Consumption Wastes”, which define the legal basis for handling production and consumption wastes and involving them in economic circulation as additional sources of raw materials. These laws are the basic ones for the broader environmental legislation implemented at three levels of governance: national, regional and municipal.
Despite the fact that the country does not yet have a centralized system for collecting and processing wastes the legal framework regulating waste management has been improved. In particular amendments to the Federal Law “On Production and Consumption Wastes” and some other legislative acts resulted in approving the List of finished goods, including packaging, to be disposed after their consumer properties are lost, and the norms for their utilization. Also the implementation of innovations in the legislation allowed environmental entrepreneurship (small and medium-sized businesses) to take over certain parts or functions of the waste management system or to implement complex small projects for collection, transportation, use, processing, and disposal of wastes. However the process of establishing an efficient waste management system in Russia should go on.
- 15:00 Microplastic Pollution Fate and Occurrence in Arctic Fjords
Authors: Madeleine Purver ( University Centre of the Westfjords and NIVA ); Pernilla Carlsson ( University Centre of the Westfjords and NIVA )
There is more widely information available of the economic consequences of marine litter, where plastics make up to 80% of this category. For example, the UN reports that fisheries, aquaculture companies and marine tourism are suffering a cost of $8 billion a year due to marine litter (UNEP, 2015). The impact and cost of microplastics are yet unknown, although public awareness, as well as financial awareness, are arising.
The main aim of this project is to gain more understanding of microplastic pollution fate and occurrence in Arctic fjords, including investigations whether atmospheric long-range transport plays an important role in the transport of microplastics to the Arctic. Isfjorden, Svalbard was chosen as the main sampling area since it contains fjord arms with different features although all fjords are within a reasonable distance. Samples were collected in four of the fjords, two with little traffic and visitors (Ekmanfjorden and Dicksonfjorden) and two fjords containing settlements (Grønfjorden; Russian settlement Barentsburg and Adventfjorden; Norwegian settlement Longyearbyen). Samples were taken from the mouth of the fjord to catch riverine and glacial inputs as well as the impact from the local settlements when present. The samples were collected using a manta net, and also a high-capacity pump system with metal filters.
The samples will be analysed near-infrared (n-IR) spectrometry to confirm the composition of any microplastic particles detected by visual analysis.
Since microplastics have been found in the ‘pristine’ Arctic, it illustrates how contaminants can impact remote locations and not just highly populated areas. Next, this global problem will need to be addressed at the source; politically, economically and environmentally.
- 15:00 Anthropogenic microlitter in wastewater from Greenland and Svalbard and the advantage of wastewater treatment- a case study from Ny Ålesund, Svalbard
Authors: Maria Granberg ( IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute ); Lis Bach ( Aarhus University ); Lisa Winberg von Friesen ( IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute ); Kserstin Magnusson ( IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute ); Jakob Strand ( Aarhus University ); Geir Wing Gabrielsen ( Norwegian Polar Institute )
Wastewater is identified as an important source of anthropogenic microlitter to the marine environment in temperate areas, while similar investigations in the Arctic are largely lacking. Sewage and wastewater treatment is generally absent in the Arctic, partly due to difficult and costly maintenance of treatment plants in low temperature environments. There is also a tendency to underestimate the impact of smaller pollution sources in the vast Arctic wilderness. Consequently municipal, industrial and hospital wastewater is discharged directly into the sea. In the wake of climate change, industrial development and tourism is expected to increase in the Arctic. This leads to rapid and temporally varying population increases in these ecologically sensitive areas supported by a highly underprovided municipal infrastructure.
The aim of this investigation was to determine the input of anthropogenic microparticles (AMPs) from wastewater to coastal waters in Svalbard and Greenland. The two sites investigated were Sisimiut in Greenland where AMP contents in wastewater from the two main outlets was measured, and Ny Ålesund in Svalbard where a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was recently installed. The majority (95-98%) of the AMPs detected in all wastewaters tested consisted of fibers. The outgoing wastewater in Sisimiut contained up to 1000 AMPs l-1. At the time of measurement, the wastewater entering the treatment plant in Ny Ålesund contained 14 200 AMPs l-1 while the outgoing wastewater contained only 83 AMPs l-1. This indicates a high performance regarding AMP retention in the WWTP. A more comprehensive study is, however, required in order to determine the true efficiency of the WWTP in Ny Ålesund. This investigation clearly identifies wastewater as a source of antropogenic microlitter to the Arctic coastal environment. It also clearly shows that this source can be removed by installing appropriate sewage treatment.
- 15:00 It's a long way to the Arctic: first record of plastic debris in the stomach of a hooded seal pup in the Greenland Sea.
Authors: Marianna Pinzone ( University of Liège ); Erling Sverre Nordøy ( Arctic University of Tromsø UiT ); Krishna Das ( University of Liège )
In April 2017, we conducted a cruise in the Greenland Sea, on board of the RV “Helmer Hansen”. The main objective was to collect tissue samples of hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups, during the post-weaning fast. Four hooded seals (1 male, 3 females) were sampled. Hooded seals’ length ranged between 93 and 105 cm. We estimated the pups to be ± 20 days old. We examined the digestive apparatus of all pups for the presence of prey and/or milk. Most stomachs and intestines were empty, except for hooded seal pup #H1-17 that contained milk at the end of the small intestine, and #H5-17, which contained three semi-digested shrimps (possibly Themisto spp.) and five pieces of plastic debris in its stomach. The latter consisted of buoyant, light-plastic pieces, originating from a larger food package from a well-known food manufacturing company. Their length ranged from 0.03cm to 11.2cm, their width ranged from 0.08cm to 7.0cm. Hooded seals from the Greenland Sea stock give birth in the pack ice in late March. Two-three weeks after weaning, pups start searching for food at the outer edge of the pack ice. During the first excursions, blueback pups focus on ice-associated crustaceans such as Themisto spp. The presence of plastic debris in one of the pups, however, was rather surprising. Many observations exist of Arctic animals (seabirds, sharks, whales) ingesting plastic debris. Plastic reaches the Northeastern Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean from highly populated southern latitudes via the Gulf Stream. In our case, the plastic debris seem to derive from a distribution site in Texas. Mysticetes may accidentally ingest floating material along with prey species when filter feeding. Seabirds may actively feed on plastic due to the resemblance with their normal prey. On the contrary, seals that feed selectively on fish, crustaceans and deep-water cephalopods have not been recorded to feed on plastic debris until now. To our knowledge, this is the first record of plastic ingestion by a phocidae species in the Arctic. The decrease in ice cover and thickness, as well as a dramatic increase in the use and expel of human made plastic during the last decades may have increased plastic scattering at the water surface of the Arctic Ocean. Increased availability of plastic, even in the remote areas of the pack ice, may currently increase the risk of plastic being eaten by unexperienced, hungry seal pups.
- 15:00 Challenges and emerging solutions for land-based plastic waste in the Arctic Region
Authors: Amy Brooks ( University of Georgia ); Jenna Jambeck ( University of Georgia )
As scientific understanding and estimates of the amounts and types of plastic waste entering the natural environment progresses, it is important to recognize variation due to geographic differences. Estimates of global and country-level mismanaged waste have been made, but more information is needed to understand how different cultures, geographies, and populations impact levels of land-based sources of marine debris. The Arctic region is one that requires unique approaches for ensuring sustainable solid waste management due to the distinctive polar weather, significant indigenous populations that are geographically spread out, and dependence upon the sea for food and energy resources. Because of the dispersed and remote communities in the Arctic, waste management can be challenging, forcing many Arctic countries to rely on open dumping, incineration, and exporting. To address the need for a review of Arctic trends regarding solid waste management and marine debris, existing information of waste management of the region was compiled to help understand Arctic waste management issues on a regional scale. In this study, we identify land-based sources of plastic waste in the Arctic based on coastal populations within the Arctic Circle, as well as identify existing and potential intervention strategies that can be taken in Arctic communities to prevent waste from reaching the environment.
- 15:00 Macroplastics massive observation over 81°N: HighNorth18 expedition record on july 2018
Authors: Franco Borgogno ( European Research Institute ); Roberta Ivaldi ( Italian Hydrographic Institute ); Maurizio Demarte ( Italian Hydrographic Institute )
In July 2018, during the Arctic Marine geophysical expedition, High North18 (07-26 July 2018), we found and documented, first time ever, massive presence of objects or large plastic fragments even near and in the Arctic ice pack, over 81° north latitude, northern Svalbard islands: 156 items, documented with gps locations, photographs, description, observation time (https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/edit?mid=17Xx-bp_OJGtKWuFmHxlx9KLFVbq8W4EN&ll=81.19305284499922%2C12.850572499999998&z=7).
Until that moment, it was believed that microplastics (fragments of less than 5 millimeters) pollution at high latitude (over 80°N) was probable, but not the macroplastics patch. In the High North18 scientific expedition led by the Italian Hydrographic Institute, part of a pluri-annual IT-Navy research program named HIGH NORTH, that involve many Italian research institutes as CNR, ENEA, OGS, INGV, ERI we planned to take water and sediment samples with manta trawl, box corer and videocamera, to gather information about microplastics.
Instead, we had a terrible surprise: July 16th (nothing in the previous days) we begun to observe dozen of items and gather information about macroplastics. First it was a pipe fragment, accidentally; then many, many others - with regular observations period - until July 19th: also in the sea ice, one every three minutes of observation. This result update and worsened global knowledge on the state of the sea plastic pollution.
The observations was in different periods of the day, from the navy side deck without binocular (naked eye).
The data we collected, the pictures and video that we purpose, the story that we tell link our daily life to those extreme, stunning, wild places, the Arctic ice pack.
- 15:00 Ban the Bag
Authors: Sladana Jovic ( Secondary school ); Bojana Mitriceski Andelkovic ( Primary school Branislav Nušić )
About the project Ban the Bags-protect the ocean - think globally and act locally
organazinig this project, students will do a campaign with the aim of highlighting the disadvantages of using plastic bags in our everyday life. They will inform their local societies and suggest ways to replace them with cotton ones. A campaign logo will be organized in few steps.
First competition -voting between the students from different schools in the municipality in Nis,Serbia and the vinner logo will be pronunced as official logo of the project and will be promoted as the common sign for the compagn.
Second step will be dissiminnation of the bags and media promotion about the project in public
Third step will be education among students –peer education about plastic and enviromental protection from it.
Forth step will be sustenable goals of the project –no more plastic bags ,we will continualy educate public about protection of the fresh and clear water on the Earth and how to preserve nice blue sea water for future generation.
The objectives of this project for students are:
- To be able to evaluate and selecte the information which can be found on the internet
- To highlight their detailed positions on the contemporary problems of society,take an acting roll in the life not just passive observers
- To make important steps to rise awerness of collective activities
- To think globally and act locally
leaflet in the English language about the detrimental effect of the use of plastic bags in the environment. This leaflet will be distributed to the respective schools and municipalities.
2) One video that will promotes the idea of the total ban of the plastic bags. The scenario will be a common product in English, the production will be made in serbian and there will be a subtitling in the English language.
3) A logo of this campaign that will be printed on cloth bags and will be distributes in the city of Nis
- 15:00 Stability and biodegradability of organic matter of permafrost-affected soils of Yamal region
Authors: Ivan Alekseev ( Saint Petersburg State University )
Chemical composition of SOC determines its decomposability and may affect soil organic matterstabilization rate (Beyer 1995; Ejarque, Abakumov, 2015). This is quite important for understanding variability in SOC pools and stabilization rate in context of changes in plant cover or climate (Rossi et al. 2016). Moreover, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which provides detailed information on diversity of structural composition of humic acids and SOM, may also be used to study the SOM dynamics under decomposition and humification proceses (Kogel-Knabner, 1997; Zech et al., 1997). This study is aimed to characterize molecular organisation of the humic acids, isolated from various permafrost-affected soils of Yamalregion and to assess the potential vulnerability of soils organic matter in context of possible mineralization processes. Organic carbon stocks for studied area were 7.85 ± 2.24 kg m-2 (for 0-10 cm layer), 14.97 ± 5.53 kg m-2 (for 0-30 cm), 23.99 ± 8.00 kg m-2 (for 0-100 cm). Results of solid-state 13C-NMR spectrometry showed low amounts of aromatic components in studied soils. All studied humic powders are characterized by predominance of aliphatic structures, and also carbohydrates, polysaccharides, ethers and amino acids. High content of aliphatic fragments in studied humic acids shows their similarity fulvic acids. Low level of aromaticity reflects the accumulation in soil of lowly decomposed organic matter due to cold temperatures. Our results provide further evidence of high vulnerability and sensitivity of permafrost-affected soils organic matter to Arctic warming. Consequently, these soils may play a crucial role in global carbon balance under effects of climate warming. This study was supported by the grant of Saint Petersburg State University "Urbanized ecosystems of the Russian Arctic: dynamics, state and sustainable development" and the Government of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District.
- 15:00 Aker BP's HSE Practice for Exploration Drilling in the Barents Sea
Authors: Nina Aas ( Aker BP ); Ragni Hatlebakk ( Aker BP ); Espen Nysted ( Aker BP ); Kjell Martin Edin ( Aker BP )
In the past years a majority of Aker BP’s exploration wells have been drilled in the mature areas in the North Sea, where the infrastructure is good and the discovery rate still high. To increase reserve rate as well as production, discoveries close to existing fields and installations are favored. Aker BP has ambitions to become a producing operator in the Barents Sea. In preparation for this, Aker BP supports a range of research and development projects within various fields of science and at different universities: BASEC, the Barents Sea Exploration Collaboration, CIRFA, Centre for Integrated Remote Sensing and Forecasting for Arctic Operations, ARCEx, Research Centre for Arctic Petroleum Exploration, SAMCOT, Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology and Coldtech, Sustainable Cold Climate Technology.
Aker BP’s overall vision is to create the leading independent offshore E&P company. This implies maintaining the highest HSE standards while being leading on cost. In 2018, the first exploration well was drilled in the Barents Sea, at the Svanefjell location. The drilling operation was carried out according to the scheduled time for drilling and without HSE incidents, and it resulted in a gas discovery.
The experiences gained during the drilling will be mentioned. Furthermore, preparatory work to focus on risk in all operations will be described. Environmental issues were identified early and handled both in the planning and later in the operational phase. These included amongst others seabed fauna and seabirds as well as discharges and emissions. Examples of measure to reduce environmental risk will be described, like testing of a new drilling mud, water treatment, mini-test (formation testing while tripping) and well testing.
- 15:00 Indigenous Energy Philosophy - Contributing to a Resilient Energy Transition
Authors: Ranjan Datta ( University of Saskatchewan )
This research explores the question: How can respectful energy relations with Indigenous people be reconstructed in the future given past history with energy pipeline leaks in North Canada? This research generates and shares knowledge about the benefits and impacts of energy exploration, extraction, and pipeline leaks on Indigenous people and their traditional territories within the Treaty Six region. We seek knowledge about the pragmatics and politics of the legal, financial, and inter-jurisdictional processes in which Indigenous people participate. This research flip the traditional approach of fitting Indigenous ways of knowing into the Canadian legal structures by starting with Indigenous ways of knowing about the relationships of Indigenous people with land, water, and energy together with the impacts of the entire supply chain of energy pipelines, including pipeline leaks. Exploring these fundamental connections, energy relations will be reconstructed in relation to issues of pipeline leaks to inform processes including consultation, regulatory hearings, approvals, social licensing (including negotiation of benefits), monitoring, clean-up of energy operations, and disaster risk reduction. By answering research questions surrounding the reconstruction of energy pipeline relations, we ensure a multi-directional flow of knowledge between non-profit groups, First Nations (FN), other Indigenous organizations, and scholars at multiple universities. Our goal is to generate and share knowledge about pipeline leak issues in Northern Saskatchewan. One component of this will be to support, advise, and engage with communities and organizations in the Treaty Six region and beyond. The researcher partner with FN and community groups to obtain new knowledge through ethnographic, policy, and legal research, and by developing new processes to co-create knowledge and share critical information. Studying cultural politics and impacts of energy entails seeking to understand Indigenous concerns and interests while also investigating Indigenous-specific government and industry processes oriented to consultation, impact assessment, remediation, benefit sharing, and public participation.
We use relational ontology and accountability as our theoretical framework as it benefits both researcher and participants, helps to decolonize by unpacking issues of power, voice and possibility when hierarchical ways of being and knowing create and exploit constructed divisions among humans and with the more-than-human. We chose the relational approach as it is: 1) defined as relational ways of thinking involving collaboration between researcher and community; in this process the collaborative nature of the research and the importance of partnership are central; 2) community knowledge, community ways of knowing, community ways of constructing knowledge, and community ways of disseminating knowledge
- 15:00 Gaps in Arctic offshore oil spill response: cases of the Kara Sea and the Barents Sea
Authors: Victor Pavlov ( University of Oulu )
The largest all-recognized problem in the Arctic, which stops oil and gas industry from operating full scale in its seas, is that they are not technologically ready for oil spill accidents. Currently, nobody can conduct confident, highly efficient and fast oil recovery from the sea surface under icy, stormy, low visibility and extremely cold conditions. In December 2015, Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response Working Group of the Arctic Council (EPPR), which is the highest level responsible organization for oil spill response (OSR) in the Arctic region, discussed the need of improvements in this field. In January 2018, after studying the Arctic Ocean in multiple geographical marine areas, EPPR concluded, in a technical report, that natural climate conditions of the region are too challenging for the present level of OSR preparedness. There are still many technological limitations and no optimized strategies for oil spill abatement. Thus, OSR issues are and will stay of a relevant discussion. This paper will focus on existing gaps of OSR, give an overview of challenges and limitations set by the demanding Arctic environment. It will analyze two seas stated in the title – the Kara Sea and Barents Sea; and present findings regarding OSR preparedness in each of them.
- 15:00 Online-biomonitoring System for Environmental Safety in the Marine Arctic
Authors: Aleksandr Gudimov ( Murmansk Marine Biological Institute ); Anton Burdygin ( Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of RAS ); Ekaterina Komarova ( Southern Federal University )
Тo date, on-line control of the environmental safety in the marine environment is completely absent. This makes it impossible to detect environmentally hazardous situations in a timely manner and quickly take the necessary decisions and actions, especially if there is any toxic pollution or other abnormal changes in the environment. The best solution for this situation is the on-line biomonitoring, which can provide continuous control of environmental safety. Our online biomonitoring system is ready for practical implementation.
- 15:00 Estimating input of mercury from historical local sources and long range transport into the coastal marine system of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard
Authors: Frits Steenhuisen ( University of Groningen ); Martine van den Heuvel-Greve ( Wageningen Marine Research )
Studies within the Ny-Ålesund historic mining area on Svalbard show elevated levels of mercury (Hg) in soil, plants and biota in the mining area compared to reference sites. This study focuses on the relative contribution of land-based local mercury input from this area to the marine system compared to long range atmospheric transport of Hg. This was done by assessing Hg concentrations in sediments of meltwater streams in the mining area and of reference locations, as well as in marine sediments near the outflow of meltwater streams. Additionally, Hg concentrations in biota were assessed at the marine locations. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to obtain further insight into the relative contribution of local sources versus long range transport.
In each meltwater stream, four sediments samples were collected from points highest upstream and those closer to the the shoreline. Marine sediments were collected using a van Veen grab. Marine worms (Nephtys sp. and Polycirrus sp.) and three types of marine shell fish (Astarte borealis, Serripes groenlandicus and Macoma calcarea) were collected by sieving Van Veen grab samples.
Higher Hg and PAH concentrations were found in (terrestrial) sediments from meltwater streams running through the Ny-Ålesund mine area, and in marine biota and sediments collected near Ny-Ålesund mine, compared to those collected at the reference sites.
A clear relation was observed between total PAH and Hg levels in both meltwater sediment samples as well as marine sediment samples. Terrestrial samples assisted in the identification of hotspots on land as potential sources for the marine system, whereas marine samples assessed the impact radius in the marine system in the proximity of a terrestrial hotspot. Cluster analysis of the 15 PAH compounds supported this conclusion.
The relative contribution of land-based local mercury from a historic mine was only dominant in direct proximity to the mine, whereas this local signal quickly faded with distance from the mine, especially in the marine system with a high water exchange with the open ocean. At the reference site furthest away on the ocean side, long-range atmospheric transport seemed to be the main source for mercury, while the PAH profile showed no relation to the coal mining activities.
- 15:00 Behavioral response of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) Larvae Exposed to the Water-Soluble Fraction of Crude Oil at Two Different Temperatures
Authors: Julia Gossa ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Morgan Lizabeth Bender ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Jennifer Laurent ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Ragnar Teisrud ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Connie Jones ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Carole Di Poi ( IFREMER ); Marianne Frantzen ( Akvaplan Niva ); Bjørn Henrik Hansen ( SINTEF ); James Meador ( NOAA ); Jasmine Nahrgang ( University of Tromsø (UiT) )
The Arctic has experienced rapid climatic changes within the past years, accompanied by an increase in temperature; leading to multi-year sea ice loss and retreat. These changes open new possibilities for industrial development in the high North, thereby also enhancing the risk of an accidental oil spill. Early life stages (ELS) of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), a keystone species in the Arctic marine environment, remain in the upper water layer during their embryonic and larval development and could thus be at risk of exposure to spilled crude oil and to warming surface waters. In a multifactorial experiment, polar cod ELS were exposed to extremely low concentrations (Σ44 PAHs in the water were below 250 ng L-1) of the crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF), at two different temperatures (0 and 3 degrees °C). The water-soluble fraction from an oiled gravel column was used to mimic the exposure of positively buoyant eggs and larvae under the sea-ice with a decrease over time in water-soluble oil components. The behavioral response of polar cod larvae was assessed by analyzing feeding success and locomotor activity during and after light stimuli (Photomotor response; PMR) to detect sublethal treatment effects of apparently healthy larvae. Exposure to the WSF of crude oil led to a dose-dependent decrease of feeding success. PMR assays showed trends of an alteration of locomotor activity of exposed larvae and higher locomotor activity levels during light phases. The reduced feeding success in combination with altered swimming behavior after exposure to the toxic crude oil WSF may severely impact prey capture abilities and would likely decrease the probability of survival to adulthood.
- 15:00 Arctic Herbivore Success in a Changing Climate
Authors: Rebecca Duncan ( University Centre in Svalbard )
Global climate change is accelerated in the Arctic, with temperatures rising twice as fast as the global average in the past three decades (Screen & Simmonds, 2010), with the projected warming ranging from 2°C to 9°C by the year 2100 (Anisimov et al. 2007). One of the most visible signs of climate change in the Arctic is the persistent annual decrease in Arctic sea ice extent of approximately 45,000km2 per year (NSDIC, 2018). In addition, multi-year ice cover is declining at approximately 11% per decade, resulting in an environment dominated by first-year ice, which is thin and more vulnerable to Summer melting (Comiso et al. 2017; AMAP, 2017). As the sea ice forms the basis of the Arctic ecosystem, an overall decline in the sea ice extent is expected to significantly alter the biology of the system. It is also expected to play a central role in Arctic temperature amplification, as ice-free waters result in large heat fluxes to the atmosphere from the warming ocean (Kaplan & New, 2006). Furthermore, it is linked to changes in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation patterns and local weather conditions, including snow depth (IPCC, 2007; Liu et al. 2012).
To examine how these changes in climate and sea ice extent impact the local physical conditions and biology of a system, this research uses statistical models to analyse the available sea ice extent and atmospheric data with twenty years of time-series data collected in Zackenberg, Greenland. The time series data includes a wide range of local physical conditions including temperature, precipitation and snow depth, vegetation productivity (NDVI) and population data including annual counts, fecundity, age structure and mortality rates.
Specifically, variations in snow depth are expected to have a significant effect on the success of the two dominant herbivores, the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) and the collared lemming (Dicrosonyx groenlandicus), as snow depth is a crucial factor determining vegetation phenology and productivity, access to vegetation and the ability to nest and hide from predation. The two herbivores are therefore expected to succeed under different snow conditions. As a result, this research highlights how complex it can be to determine appropriate ecosystem management strategies and that there is rarely a ‘one size fits all approach’ due to the interdependent and often non-linear ecological relationships involved. This understanding is especially important in the Arctic, as the accelerated effects of climate change mean that Arctic ecosystems require different and more immediate management strategies.
- 15:00 Are you interested in widening your knowledge about the Arctic?
Authors: Izabela Kotynska-Zielinska ( TodayWeHave ); Anna Pradzinska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Jan Marcin Weslawski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
Climate changes have a severe impact on every part of the world. They disrupt human lives in every way, through changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, more extreme weather events, and the cost of these changes will be even higher in the future. Why is the Arctic an important issue in the subject of climate changes? The academic answer would be: the Arctic amplification, while young people would rather prefer to hear the full story, i.e. that melting sea ice is impacting the Arctic people and wildlife. This phenomenon has a great impact on the changes of climate in every part of the globe, through e.g. extreme weather events.
Do people realize it? Do young people care? And how much, if at all are they interested in the Arctic issues and thus the climate change? We decided to ask this question in a number of schools in a region of Gdansk, Poland, a large, urban area with school children exposed to the outside world on a regular basis.
We realize that today Polish school curriculum has very little room for discussing the Arctic issues, and thus Polish young learners do not have a chance to learn much about it in schools. Yet, when it comes to showing some interest the results are rather stunning.
The question: Are you interested in widening your knowledge about the Arctic? asked to kids at all four levels of education yielded following responses:
In the age group 7 – 9, 71% kids gave a positive answer (92% girls and 55% boys), in the age group 13 - 14, 53% expressed interest (52% girls and 54% boys), in the age group 14 – 15, 30% kids expressed interest (56% girls and 11% boys), and finally, in the age group 18 – 20, only 17% kids were interested in widening their knowledge about the Arctic, including 14% girls and 20% boys.
This is quite disturbing that school kids loose interest with age, reaching very small level of interest at the age of 18-20. Further analyses, with more data are being carried out.
- 15:00 Interdisciplinary studies on the relevance of Arctic research among societies that are rooted in the tradition, history and geographical settings.
Authors: Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Jan Marcin Weslawski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Michal Luszczuk ( UMCS )
Representatives of natural sciences, in the era of rapidly growing number of projects and plans for the polar research, are encouraged more than ever before to reflect upon the significance and relevance of the scientific research in the Arctic for the wider society. This is linked with the other question, namely, how the polar research is perceived and understood by the community, by decision makers, by media and opinion trendsetters.
The perception of polar issues by e.g. Poles is a complicated matter. Poles explored polar regions of Siberia in XIX century and participated in the Belgica Antarctic expedition in XIX century. Polish general public was very proud of our research expeditions to the Arctic before the WWII and they were widely advertised and promoted, also in schools.
We realize that the Arctic has a wide range of global connections and thus the region is linked to systems and processes that reach far beyond the Arctic Circle. A good level of understanding of these interconnections, with respect to different geographical (local, regional, global), and time scales, is necessary in order to equip decision-makers and stake-holders with the necessary knowledge to address current and future challenges for achieving sustainable Arctic futures.
To stimulate discussion about these topics we examined the relevance of Arctic research among different European countries and particular societies that are rooted in the tradition, history and geographical settings we organized a number of activities, from a conference and a workshop, to school questionnaires, which were devoted to: (1) presentation and discussion of state of art of interdisciplinary scientific knowledge about social relevance of Arctic research; (2) brain-storming new ideas, that through excellent studies and well-designed outreach could boost the significance of Arctic interdisciplinary research in different parts of the world; (3) developing a network of institutions interested in establishing closer cooperation on societal relevance of Arctic interdisciplinary research.
We are currently analysing different aspects of our activities however, the very first observations show that e.g. Polish school kids lose their interest in the Arctic issues with age. This is a piece of information which is very relevant for people who prepare our school curriculum.
- 15:00 The legal framework of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Arctic Ocean under UNCLOS
Authors: Yunjin Kim ( Graduate School of International Studies, Busan National University )
According to the target of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), at least 10% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are to be conserved by 2020. Considering the fact that a large portion of the Arctic Ocean lies in the areas beyond national jurisdiction and only 1.55% of the Arctic marine areas are protected, promoting the establishment of MPAs in the high seas implies that more effort is needed from all parties to expand the areas having comprehensive ecological approaches and networks toward vulnerable ecosystems.
However, establishing MPAs in the areas beyond national jurisdiction contains the issues of absences or limitations of the current UNCLOS legal basis. The present accepted legal framework for MPAs in the Arctic Ocean is likely to be a nation-led approach under the authority of the Arctic Council and its working groups (e.g PAME, CAFF) making it limited to the EEZ of the Arctic coastal states.
This analysis poses the questions; (1) what are the limits of MPAs establishment in the Arctic high sea under UNCLOS? (2) what type of strategies can be suggested to build a multilateral legal framework among the Arctic governance state actors including indigenous communities and non-Arctic participants? The paper will examine these issues based on current UN conventions, plans, and assessments of the Arctic Council’s working groups while giving a room for further consideration of a regional agreement in the future.
- 15:00 Risk Assessment of Operation and Maintenance of Wind Turbines in the Arctic
Authors: Albara Mustafa ( The Arctic University of Norway UiT ); Abbas Barabadi ( The Arctic University of Norway UiT )
There is a number of risks associated with wind turbines installed in cold climate regions, most of these risks are related to ice accumulation on the wind turbine structure. One of the main risks is ice thrown off a wind turbine’s rotor during its operation, thrown ice fragments represent a danger to operators, maintenance workers, and to people passing by the wind turbine in case it is installed near public areas. Moreover, the load of accumulated ice affects the performance of the wind turbine and leads to power loss, imbalances and fatigue. Furthermore, Ice can destroy the ground foundation of the wind turbine in case liquid water leaked into the cracks in the foundation and formed ice. The author applied the risk assessment tools and commands, starting with identifying the hazards, followed by determining the probability of each hazard and the consequences of such hazard if it takes place, which will lead to evaluating the risk. In addition, the review considers the techniques and technologies used to monitor and mitigate ice accretion on wind turbines. Based on this literature review, future work can be carried out in order to examine more related hazards to cold climate regions, define a mathematical model for the probability and consequence of risks and determine the most feasible risk control measures to mitigate these risks.
Keywords: Risk Assessment, Wind Turbines in the Arctic, Hazard Identification, Risk Evaluation, Risk Control.
- 15:00 The invasion of an alien crab Chionoecetes opilio (Decapoda, Brachyura) in the Kara Sea.
Authors: Anna Zalota ( Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS ); Vassily Spiridonov ( Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS ); Olga Zimina ( Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Murmansk (MMBI) )
Climate change and shrinking of sea ice cover in the Arctic will expand the shipping capacity of the Northern Sea Route. This increases the chances of introducing alien species by both higher propagule pressure (increased traffic) and creating suitable conditions (longer period of open water). The invasion of an alien crab Chionoecetes opilio into the Kara Sea is an example of such effect. Studying it can shed light on how pristine Arctic ecosystems of the Siberian shelf seas react to a new predatory invader, and whether this crab is capable of achieving large size and numbers in low productivity seas.
Snow crab opilio entered the Kara Sea from the Barents Sea where it is already well established and commercially harvested. Its invasion, in late 2000s, has coincided with lower concentration of ice in the western Kara Sea in spring – early summer, which gave crabs’ larvae enough time to mature and settle. They expanded throughout the western part of the sea and achieved high concentrations (0.55 crabs/m2, near the Kara Gates Strait, 2016). We collected data by both trawling and underwater towed video module since 2014. During this time we observed all size groups within crabs’ population. The crabs successfully settle and grow in the western Kara shelf. The size groups differ from those described in the literature due to differences in environmental conditions and possibly two settling events: incoming larvae from the Barents Sea and locally produced in the Kara Sea.
Ovigerous females with well developed eggs have been found since 2016. The eastern bays of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago could be a nursery for the younglings of the invader. The largest crab found up to date was near the Kara Gate Strait and measured 116 mm in carapace width. This specimen could have walked in from the Barents Sea, and does not reflect on the capability of the Kara Sea to provide for the local population to achieve commercial size. Although, such possibility cannot be excluded and could lead to new commercial fishing opportunities in previously unharvested sea. Fishing of alien species should be used to control its expansion and number in marine protected areas such as the national park “Russian Arctic” in the north of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and Franz Josef Land.
The research was conducted with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 18-05-70114.
- 15:00 T-MOSAiC: A land-based Arctic Circumpolar project
Authors: João Canário ( Centro de Química Estrutural - Instituto Superior Técnico - University of Lisbon ); Warwick Vincent ( Centre d’études nordiques (CEN) & Département de biologie, Laval University ); Taneil Uttal ( NOAA ); Maribeth Murray ( University of Calgary ); Diogo Folhas ( Centro de Química Estrutural - Instituto Superior Técnico - University of Lisbon ); Gonçalo Vieira ( IGOT - Centro de Estudos Geográficos - Universidade de Lisboa ); Julia Boike ( AWI )
The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) international project Terrestrial Multidisciplinary distributed Observatories for the Study of Arctic Connections (T-MOSAiC) aims to answer the following question: What are the implications of changing sea ice, oceanography and climate of the Arctic Ocean for the surrounding land-based geosystems, ecosystems and human systems? This project will connect studies taking place across the Arctic and across disciplines in order to generate new insights into northern geosystems, ecosystems and human systems. Potential research activities within T-MOSAiC include estimating past changes in Arctic geodiversity and biodiversity, measuring current change and predicting future changes, measurement and modelling of permafrost, snow and glacier mass balance across different scales, projections of the future state of the Arctic cryosphere, and analyses of the effects of changing climate on human communities, for example the impacts of permafrost thaw on ecosystem services such as drinking water, food security, engineered infrastructure.
Implementation activities will include ongoing environmental measurements, such as those made by existing networks such as Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW), International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere’ (IASOA), the Permafrost Carbon Network as well as measurements of land-based and coastal ecological/biological state and process variables and the development of conceptual models relating the vulnerability of northern infrastructure and ecosystems to sea-ice and climate change. T-MOSAiC will also use transect analyses in the terrestrial environment that could provide (coast to continental interior, from high to lower latitudes, East-West gradients) to better understand the terrestrial extent of impacts caused by changes. Collaboration with other groups and programs are welcome. Further information including contact addresses are given on the T-MOSAiC website: www.T-MOSAiC.org.
- 15:00 Arctic -- less pristine than we would wish. Atmospheric studies providing evidence for changing regimes in the Arctic pollution patterns.
Authors: Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Paulina Pakszys ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
For decades, the Arctic has been considered as a pristine environment with limited anthropogenic influence. However, today we know that the Arctic environment is continuously contaminated by pollutants transported over large distances from lower latitude sources.
Over the past 30 years, extensive international studies were conducted in the Arctic to elucidate the transport pathways into the Arctic. Due to the lack of significant local anthropogenic aerosol sources, it is aerosols and pollution transported to the Arctic through atmospheric circulation that have a tremendous impact on the environment of this extremely sensitive area, mainly through influencing the Arctic surface radiation budget.
Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences has over 30 years of experience in continuous studies in the Arctic, majority of which have been made using r/v Oceania. Our long-term investigations show that atmospheric aerosols influence the Arctic radiation budget during entire year, however, there are certain seasons which this influence is most pronounced. For decades it was spring, with its Arctic Haze phenomenon, that was considered as the most influencing the Arctic environment.
We have found evidence that the recent outbreaks of biomass burning in summer, and/or volcano eruptions may have larger impact on the radiation budget of the Arctic than the Arctic Haze.
- 15:00 Dominant species and communities' mapping: are communities with the same dominants really similar in different seas?
Authors: Alexandra Chava ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Vadim Mokievsky ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology )
The dominance of one particular species (or species of one genera) in the geographically remote communities was thoroughly described by Gunnar Thorson (Thorson, 1957) in his theory of parallel communities. While studying soft-bottom macrobenthic associations of Russian Arctic we discovered a somewhat similar pattern. А bivalve protobranchian mollusc Portlandia arctica (Gray, 1824),found everywhere from the White sea to Chukotka, is dominant in three locations whose abiotic traits are extremely different: the Babje More bay and Velikaya Salma strait in the west part of the White Sea and bays of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago (the Kara Sea). Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that for these locations there are three separate communities having very little in common. Beside P. arcticaitself, two more bivalves (Macoma calcarea, Mya truncata), and three polychaete species (Micronephtys minuta, Terebellides stroemi, Maldane sarsi) were found in all the study sites. Apart from that the three communitites differ in most ecological characteristics such as average biomass or species composition, richness and diversity.
Velikaya Salma strait is the the richest in species (38±3 species per station) and the most diverse one. Typical boreal species - polychaetes Myriochele oculataand Nephtys ciliata, bivalves Elliptica ellipticaand Yoldia hyperborea- dominate the study site along with P.arctica. In Novaya Zemlya bays Portlandia community mostly consists of high-arctic species with brittle star Ophiopleura borealis, bivalve Bathyarca glacialis and sipunculid worm Golfingia margaritacea being dominant together with P.arctica. The bays and Salma have one dominant species in common – a bivalve Ennucula tenuis. Babje More is an isolated shallow bay, connected to the sea by a couple of narrow straits. Its benthic fauna is impoverished allegedly due to the sesonal depletion of oxygen in near-bottom layer. The figures for the species richness are the lowest in this location (14±2 species per station). It appears to be the habitat close to the upper depth limit for P.arctica, with polychaetes Alitta virens, Prionospio cirrifera and bivalves Serripes groenlandicus, Macoma calcarea dominating alongside with Portlandia.
Such a big difference between communities with one “pervasive” dominant species, raises an important zoogeographical question: can we distinguish a unified Portlandia arctica community on a large geographic scale? And if so, what traits apart from faunal composition can we rely on?
Thorson, G. (1957). Bottom communities (sublittoral or shallow shelf). Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology, 1, 461-534.
- 15:00 Interannual variability of annual runoff volume of dissolved solids of the Pechora River.
Authors: Alla Govor ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Denis K. Alexeev ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Arctic ecosystems were considered intact for many years. However, due to the planning of new economic activities in their catchment water areas, as well as because of global changes in the environment, the Arctic ecosystems are under increasing external impact. Development of oil, oil and gas processing and coal mining industries in the basin of the Pechora River predetermines the possibility of contamination of wide complex of organic and inorganic pollutants. Special danger to freshwater ecosystems of the Russian Arctic is entering into the aquatic environment of oil and petroleum products, because due to the low temperature the rate of oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons is extremely low.
The role of chemical runoff into seas of the Arctic basin from the territory of Russia is extremely high. One of the most important factors in the formation of the hydrochemical regime of lower reach rivers, estuaries and coastal parts of marine waters is the inflow of dissolved solids. Transboundary transfer of pollutants by transit rivers from the territories adjacent to the Arctic is the one of the main ways of entering of pollutants to the Russian Arctic. The completeness and reliability of the assessment of the transport of chemicals from the watersheds of the land to the mouths of rivers and coastal zones of the Arctic seas is largely determined by the reliability of information on the areas of river basins and water runoff, including its long-term and seasonal variability.
The main goal of research was carried out to estimate annual runoff volume of chemicals in Pechora River. The research was done on the basis of data of the Northern Interregional Territorial Department of the Federal Service of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. Observation was made on hydrologic monitoring stations during the period from 2008 to 2012: the Pechora River – village Oksino (38 km above Naryan-Mar), the Pechora River – Naryan-Mar (village Bondarka). The program of observations included hydrological and hydrochemical parameters. The water quality was evaluated by 17 parameters, including magnesium, chlorine, sulfate, mineralization, sodium, potassium, calcium, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), petroleum hydrocarbons, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphates, silicon, iron, copper, zinc, oxygen. The main attention in assessing the annual runoff volume was given to nutrients, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.
- 15:00 PAHs and organochlorine contaminants in suspended matter collected from the selected fjords of West Spitsbergen
Authors: Anna Pouch ( Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences ); Agata Zaborska ( Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences ); Ksenia Pazdro ( Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences )
Despite being far away from the major sources of pollution, the Arctic has been recognized as a region contaminated by several harmful substances of anthropogenic origin. Moreover global climate change, manifesting in changes in environmental conditions, may alter contaminant transport pathways, fate and therefore routes of exposure for Arctic wildlife and humans. For example melting glaciers and sea ice may result in the increased supply of contaminants to marine waters. A group of contaminants of special interest are hydrophobic organic pollutants as they resist to degradation and tend to accumulate in organisms posing several negative effects. Therefore the updating of the existing knowledge on POPs concentrations and cycling in abiotic and biotic elements in the Arctic is necessary nowadays.
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in suspended matter (SPM) collected in fjords of the Svalbard archipelago differing in environmental conditions and anthropogenic impact (Hornsund, Adventfjorden and Kongsfjorden). In waters hydrophobic organic contaminants tend to adsorb on suspended organic and mineral particles. Part of them sink to the bottom sediments and the other part may be accumulated by marine organisms through direct contact. The concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds - polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended matter were studied.
The samples were collected in 2015 and 2016 from r/v “Oceania”. Water samples were passed through GF-5 filters and the collected suspended matter was stored in – 80°C. Afterwards the samples were subjected to the extraction with methylene chloride. Clean-up and fractionation were performed by absorption chromatography on silica gel and aluminium oxide. Hexane was used to extract PCBs and HCB and a mixture of hexane:methylene chloride (9:1 v/v) to extract PAHs. Chromatography technique was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the target compounds. Concentration of sum of PCBs in suspended mater varied from 8.58 to 178,25 ng/g dry suspended matter, while sum of PAHs fluctuated between 1,25 and 98,60 mg/g dry suspended mater. The obtained results are discussed in the context of sampling location and types of water masses. The relationships between the analyzed contaminant levels and selected SPM characteristics were also explored.
The project has been partially financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW)received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018 and funded by the Polish National Science Centre, Poland (grant no.2016/23/N/ST10/01358).
- 15:00 Effect of terrestrial input on community composition of soft-bottom benthos in Isfjorden, Svalbard.
Authors: Charlotte Pedersen Ugelstad ( University of Tromsø ); Maeve McGovern ( University of Tromsø and NIVA ); Bodil Bluhm ( University of Tromsø ); Paul Renaud ( Akvaplan- niva and University Centre of Svalbard ); Amanda Poste ( NIVA )
Benthic community composition is determined by a variety of abiotic factors, which vary on regional and local scales. For instance, in Svalbard fjords, land-based glacier, tidal glaciers and rivers bring heavy loads of sediments and freshwater to the inner basins, in contrast to the deep saline water in the open fjord. Terrestrial run-off from a warming Arctic landscape delivers freshwater and inorganic sediments (and associated nutrients and organic matter) to coastal areas. These inputs are expected to increase in the future, but such implications for local benthic community structure and functioning have rarely been studied.
Soft-bottom macrofauna samples were collected in August 2018 using a Van-Veen grab along inner to outer fjord transects in Billefjord, Tempelfjord and Adventfjord, as well as several nearshore river estuary and shallow control stations. Samples were collected from a total of 30 stations and community composition will be analyzed in relation to environmental factors, including temperature, salinity, bottom water and sediment chlorophyll a, and stable C and N isotope values of particulate organic matter. Sediment color, pH, temperature and redox potential (Eh) were measured in field. Preliminary results show that all river-estuary stations in Tempelfjord had similar community composition, dominated by polychaetes and bivalves, though one station, in the estuary for the deGeerelva river flowing into Tempelfjord, had large amounts of terrestrial material and few bivalves. An increase in taxonomic and functional diversity from the inner to the outer part of the fjords is expected.
- 15:00 State of the new Arctic- as observed in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard
Authors: Christina A. Pedersen ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Kai Bischof ( University of Bremen ); Jack Kohler ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Radovan Krejci ( Stockholm University ); Maarten J. J. E. Loonen ( University of Groningen )
The annual mean temperature in Ny-Ålesund Research Station, Svalbard, has risen by 1.3 ± 0.7 C per decade, with a maximum seasonal increase during the winter months of 3.1 ± 2.6 C per decade (Maturilli et al., 2015). This prove Ny-Ålesund and the long-time series from the station to be a representative for the new Arctic. Ny-Ålesund is located at the northernmost point of the warm Atlantic Ocean inflow, and hosts a sophisticated infrastructure that enables observations of relevant parameters in the ocean, on land, and in the atmosphere. The site is, thus, among other ideally positioned for research and monitoring of contemporary environmental changes related to climate change issues. With its long-term data series, the station represents one of the most important environmental monitoring site in the Arctic, and hosts numerous international multidisciplinary collaborative science projects from institutions from more than ten nations.
This presentation shows results from some of the unique long time series from Ny-Ålesund, and also describes how the established coordinating tools (NySMAC and the flagship networks) increase the scientific outcome of the various institutes individual long-term time series.
- 15:00 Effect of terrestrial inputs on water chemistry, ecology and mercury contamination of a coastal lagoon on Svalbard
Authors: Connor McKnight ( Norwegian University of Science and Technology ); Amanda Poste ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research ); Bjørn Munro Jenssen ( Norwegian University of Science and Technology ); Guttorm Christensen ( Akvaplan-niva )
Arctic coastal ecosystems are subject to environmental change through global warming. This is leading to enhanced fluxes of freshwater, nutrients and contaminants such as mercury at the land-sea interface. Increased inputs from land will lead to alterations in coastal ecology, biogeochemical cycling and contaminant concentrations, thus highlighting terrestrial inputs as an important focal point for future research.
Recent work by the Norwegian Polar Institute has identified >100 coastal lagoons on Svalbard, which have varying degrees of influence from terrestrial inputs. Coastal lagoons are areas of high biological production, which are important for a range of taxa from differing trophic levels. Lagoons can therefore be used as ‘living laboratories’, allowing for a better understanding of localised ecology (particularly food web dynamics) and influence of contaminants.
Generally, there is a lack of data on Arctic coastal lagoons, particularly regarding contaminant concentrations. This study therefore aims to assess the influence of terrestrial inputs in a select coastal lagoon system on Svalbard. Here, preliminary results on lagoon water and sediment chemistry, ecology and mercury contamination are presented. These results are part of the wider interdisciplinary “TerrACE” project, which explores how terrestrial inputs influence coastal environments on Svalbard with respect to ecology, biogeochemistry and contaminant dynamics.
- 15:00 High pollution events in surface waters of Russian Arctic: State-of-the-Art and Multiyear Dynamics
Authors: Ekaterina Zhadanovskaya ( Yu.A.Izrael Institute of Global Climate and Ecology ); Sergey Gromov ( Yu.A.Izrael Institute of Global Climate and Ecology/Institute of Geography RAS )
The Arctic area of the Russian Federation is a region of a huge potential source of natural resources (oil, gas, minerals). It occupies about one-fifth of the Russian territory located north of the Arctic Circle. The current Public Policy of the Russian Federation is aimed to the intensive development of the Russian Arctic and the use of its natural resources that is the strategic priority for Russia's social and economic development. Under the continuous permafrost the environment of the Arctic region is extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic impact and very slowly restored. The regular observations of the National monitoring network allow to control the current state and pollution of the Arctic environment which is especially important in the context of increasing anthropogenic impact on the region.
Analysis of monitoring data over a 10-year period (2007-2016) showed that the surface waters of the Arctic region are characterized by a low pollution level in comparison with the surface waters of other regions in the Russian Federation. However, in areas of intensive economic activity there are so-called "environmental hot spots", i.e. those lands and waters that are experiencing the most dramatic change under direct and indirect anthropogenic impact. The most significant water pollution sources in the Russian Arctic are mining and smelting industry in cities of Norilsk, Monchegorsk and Nikel, pulp and paper mills in the Arkhangelsk region, oil and gas facilities in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets autonomous regions, as well as discharges of untreated sewage in settlements. The main contribution to the pollution of Arctic surface waters is made by toxicants including nitrogen compounds, nickel, molybdenum, copper, manganese, cesium dithiophosphate. Every year more than 75% of all cases of high and extremely high water pollution in the continental part of the Arctic region are registered in the water bodies of the Murmansk region. Although the high pollution levels of the surface waters in the Murmansk region are local in nature, but the low ability to self-purification in the Arctic conditions and a constant load from industrial facilities lead to the fact that the pollution of small water bodies in the region has become permanent. The last is confirmed by high average levels of harmful substances in the water and repeated cases of high and extremely high pollution in Murmansk region. More detail review of high surface water pollution in Russian Arctic are presented along with the use of schematic maps and tendency evaluation.
- 15:00 The dominant time scales and spatial patterns of Barents Sea ice variance and retreat
Authors: Evangelia (Elina) Efstathiou ( University of Bergen / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Tor Eldevik ( University of Bergen / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Marius Årthun ( University of Bergen / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research )
The recent decade has seen reduced sea ice growth leading to an accelarated trend toward lower Barents Sea ice extent, with the sea ice extent in 2016 and 2017 being the lowest on records. A general dependence of Barents Sea ice cover on the inflow of Atlantic water is well known including predictability. However, the latter studies have been concerned with putting one areal number of change without further assesing the associated dominant temporal and spatial patterns of variance. A more detailed assessment is necessary for more practical and informative predictions, and for more a mechanistic understanding. In order to examine the dominant spatial patterns of sea ice variability and their temporal variations, we apply an empirical orthogonal function analysis on observed sea ice concentration data provided by NOAA. The analysis reveals one dominant pattern of sea-ice variance, highly correlated with the Atlantic inflow, and two other patterns that characterize redistribution of the sea ice within the area.
- 15:00 Influence of SST in the tropical oceans on the Arctic climate
Authors: Genrikh Alekseev ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, ); Svetlana Kuzmina ( Nansen Centre, St. Petersburg, ); Natalia Glok ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, )
The first objective is to assess the role of meridional atmospheric heat and moisture transport (MAHT) in the temperature variations in the Arctic. MAHT across 70N into 70–90N area was calculated using ERA/Interim reanalysis data for 1979–2016. It is found that main inflow in winter comes across 0–80E within layer between the surface and 750 hPa and explains more than 50 % of variability of surface air temperature in the 70–90N area. The second objective was to assess the influence of SST anomalies in the low latitudes of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans on change in the winter MAHT to the Arctic. The area and month with maximal correlation between SST and winter MAHT (up to 0.75) as well as respective lags (27-30 months) in each ocean were found. The third objective is an assessment of the influence of SST anomalies in low latitudes on surface air temperature sea and ice cover in the Arctic. Series of water temperature at the section in the Barents Sea, sea ice extent and surface air temperature in the Arctic were used additionally. It is found intimate link between change of Atlantic SST in low latitudes and sea ice extent in the Arctic with correlation coefficients up to 0.90 and delays up to 3 years. A mechanism of the influence of SST anomalies in low latitudes on winter MAHT, sea ice and air temperature is proposed. It includes the interactions of atmospheric (Hadley and Ferrel circulations, NAO) and oceanic (Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic and the Norwegian currents) circulation patterns.
- 15:00 Mechanisms of ocean heat anomalies in the Norwegian Sea
Authors: Helene Asbjørnsen ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, ); Marius Årthun ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, ); Øystein Skagseth ( Institute of Marine Research, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, ); Tor Eldevik ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, )
Ocean heat content in the Norwegian Sea exhibits pronounced variability on interannual to decadal time scales. These ocean heat anomalies are known to influence Arctic sea ice extent, marine ecosystems, and continental climate. It is, however, still unknown to what extent such heat anomalies are produced locally within the Norwegian Sea, and to what extent the region is more of a passive receiver of anomalies formed elsewhere. In order to address this issue, a regional heat budget is calculated for the Norwegian Sea using the ECCOv4 ocean state estimate - a dynamically and kinematically consistent model framework fitted to ocean observations from the period 1992-2015. The depth-integrated Norwegian Sea heat budget shows that approximately 50% of the interannual heat content variability is explained by ocean advection, and 50% is explained by local air-sea heat fluxes. Spatial analysis of the individual heat budget terms indicates that ocean advection is a dominant driver of heat content variability along the Atlantic water pathway, with local atmospheric forcing acting to modify the heat anomalies along their poleward pathway. Further spatial and temporal decompositions of the advection term indicate Atlantic water inflow strength to be a major source of Norwegian Sea heat content variability, and inversely linked to the Subpolar Gyre strength. Our results provide a better understanding of regional ocean heat anomalies and how these interact with the atmosphere, and, hence, improve our knowledge of the ocean’s role in near-term climate change.
- 15:00 Sea ice characteristics and surface turbulent heat fluxes in the Arctic in NCEP CFSR
Authors: Julia Selivanova ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Polina Verezemskaya ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Natalia Tilinina ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Sergey Gulev ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology )
The major sea ice loss in the Arctic observed in the recent decades may potentially lead to the drastic changes in the atmosphere-ocean system behavior in the polar region. A number of works assumed to be evident, that the reduction in the sea ice cover has resulted in the increased heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere (Vihma, 2014; Overland and Wang, 2010; Stroeve et al., 2011; Jaiser et al., 2012).
In this study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of surface turbulent heat flux response on Arctic sea ice loss in the modern climate based on NCEP CFSR reanalysis data from 1979 to 2010.
Two principally different methodologies were applied to assess the integral heat flux response to the sea ice variability in the Arctic. The first one based on the sea ice extent criterion (15%) did not discover the link between open-water area and the surface heat flux variations. This result seems to be expected as this methodology implies midlatitude atmosphere forced processes over the open ocean and does not account for the heat flux over marginal ice zone (MIZ).
An alternative methodology that considers the open water area inside the ice cover reveals a strong signal over the pack ice both in March and September (correlation coefficients between monthly mean anomalies 0.76 and 0.87 respectively) and during the certain periods over the MIZ in March (R=0.71 for 5-day means during 2004-2010).
The spatial analysis of linear trends detected regional heat flux response on the sea ice concentration (SIC) and thickness change. During the cold season heat flux increase by up to 50 W/m2/decade follows the sea ice retreat in the Barents Sea (up to -20%/decade). Opposite trends during the winter are observed in the Bering Sea (-22 W/m2/decade, +9%/decade). In summer heat flux feedback exists in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (up to 18 W/m2/decade) where ice decreases by up to -24%/decade and diminishes by up to -0.8 m/decade.
The seasonal discrepancy in the heat flux distribution over the different ice classes has been shown. Heat exchange between surface and atmosphere is dependent on open water area inside the ice and ice thickness.
- 15:00 Physicochemical Response to Terrestrial Inputs in a River and Glacier-Influenced Arctic Fjord (Isfjorden, Svalbard)
Authors: Maeve McGovern ( NIVA, UiT ); Anita Evenset ( Akvaplan-niva, UiT ); Katrine Borgå ( UiO ); Janne E. Søreide ( UNIS ); Amanda Poste ( NIVA )
Increased terrestrial run-off in Arctic regions is one major impact of climate change. As temperatures and precipitation increase and permafrost thaws and glaciers melt, coastal areas are experiencing increased inputs from the terrestrial environment. These inputs bring water, sediments, nutrients, organic matter and contaminants across the land-ocean interface with a range of implications for coastal biogeochemistry and contamination. To investigate the nature and magnitude of these inputs, 17 stations were sampled in May, June and August along gradients in an Arctic fjord system (Isfjorden, Svalbard) in the summer of 2018. Physicochemical conditions were characterized through CTD and light profiles, and a variety of water chemistry analyses along gradients from glacier fronts and river outlets to the outer fjord. Stations close to the river outlets and glacier fronts were characterized by increased light attenuation and fresh, turbid waters while outer stations were clearer and more saline, especially in June. Gradients in levels of nutrients (N,P, Si), terrestrial organic matter, and contaminants (Hg, POPs) are expected to demonstrate conservative mixing, following the trends observed in salinity. Preliminary results of this study reveal a pervasive freshwater footprint in the inner fjord arms of Isfjorden and demonstrate that these inputs can have substantial effects on the local physicochemical conditions in the fjord with implications for the ecology and contaminantion of the system.
- 15:00 Mercury levels in top predators as a valuable marker of environmental state and potential health risk to Arctic marine biota.
Authors: Marianna Pinzone ( University of Liège ); Erling Sverre Nordøy ( Arctic University of Tromsø UiT ); Jean-Pierre Desforges ( University of Aarhus ); Igor Eulaers ( University of Aarhus ); Rune Dietz ( University of Aarhus ); Krishna Das ( University of Liège )
Mercury (Hg) in Arctic biota is increasing in contrast with trends in the rest of the world. In top predators, tissue levels surpassed the established toxicity thresholds. New research has revealed how the Arctic Hg cycle has altered because of sea-surface temperature increase and sea-ice cover decline. True seals are Arctic top predators. As such, Hg level in their tissue may represent a valuable integrator for changes in Hg cycling in their food chain. Our objective was to assess how the health risk associated with Hg exposure has evolved in the last 20 years in response to environmental changes. We measured Total-Hg levels in liver of hooded seals Cystophora cristata (N = 10), harp seals Pagophilus groenlandicus (N = 13) and ringed seals Pusa hispida (N = 24) through Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (DMA-80 Milestone). We grouped seals in five toxicity risk classes and compared them to the results of Dietz et al. (2005), based upon effect threshold categories calculated for harp seals by Ronald et al. (1977). Overall, hooded seals presented the highest values, followed by ringed seals and harp seals (all p < 0.05). 100% of harp seals (all ages) were in the “no effect” category, as well as yearlings of hooded and harp seals. 22% of sub-adults and 45% of adult ringed seals belonged to the “low risk” category. Conversely, all hooded seals resulted at risk with 100% of sub-adults and 25% of adults in the “low risk” class, 25% of adults in the “high risk” class and 50% of adults in the “severe risk” class. Our classification resulted very different from the 2000s when only 20% of the hooded seals’ population was at “high risk” and 20% of ringed seals was at “low risk”. This shows that Arctic true seals are at increasing toxicity risk as a consequence of the undergoing environmental changes, with some species (hooded seal) being more affected than others (harp seal). The change in length of ice season may have determined a shift in prey diversity, modifying levels of Hg exposure to seals, while the decrease in ice cover altered rates of Hg methylation in the water column and consequently its bioavailability. Our future goal is to correlate ice-cover data with seals’ Hg levels in the last 100 years, to confirm the link between climate change and Hg accumulation in seals and potentially foresee future trends of toxicity risk in Arctic top predators.
- 15:00 Arctic marine microbial ecology in the Svalbard polar night
Authors: Martí Amargant-Arumí ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Rolf Gradinger ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
This study investigated the presence and activity of the components of the microbial food web (sepcifically viruses, heterotrophic bacteria and nanoflagellates, and autotrophic Cyanobacteria and pico-nanoflagellates) in the waters around the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) during the polar night period. The study focused on two major questions – are there differences in the community composition in different water masses? And, are there significant changes occurring during the polar night period? Two cruises in January and November 2017 with a total of 11 stations offered the opportunity to test these hypotheses. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell abundances in the uppermost 100m of the water column, and 8 serial dilution experiments were conducted to estimate their growth and grazing rates. All studied organism groups occurred in all samples in low abundances in both January and November. Comparison to the hydrographic regime revealed strong linkages between community structure and hydrography with higher abundances in Atlantic Water samples. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates and autotrophic pico-nanoplankton were markedly less present in January, whereas bacteria and viruses displayed steady concentrations in both months. This supported the hypothesis of succession in the microbial network throughout the polar night, and the possible role of mixotrophy and resting stages are discussed. No significant growth or grazing was detected in the experiments, which could be caused e.g. by low substrate availability and resting strategies. This study demonstrated that all members of the microbial food web organisms persists throughout the polar night in the major water masses around Svalbard. Future studies using alternative approaches are suggested to further study these processes during times of low activity.
- 15:00 Soil Organic Matter and Microbiological Activity in Post-fire Alpine Tundra Ecosystems
Authors: Mikhail Maslov ( Lomonosov Moscow State University ); Olga Maslova ( Lomonosov Moscow state University ); Ekaterina Kopeina ( Polar Alpine Botanical Garden )
Fire as an ecological factor affecting all ecosystem blocks has been actively studied for boreal forests. Much less data were obtained for tundra soils of postpyrogenic successions, as compared to forest soils. Due to the low reserves of aboveground phytomass in tundra ecosystems, the main impact of fires falls on the litter and organic soil horizons. The aim of this work is a comparative assessment of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamic and microbiological activity in soils of post-fire mountain alpine tundra ecosystems in Khibiny (Murmansk region, NW of Russia). We investigated ecosystems on different stage of restoration: 0+ (two weeks after fire); 2+ (two years after fire); 3+; 12+ and 60+. Lichen-dwarf shrub and dwarf-shrub health were selected as a control ecosystems.
Soils of the alpine tundra retain the memory of the fire for a long time. The fire leads to a significant decrease in the content of C in organogenic, as well as in mineral soil horizons, which is associated with direct pyrogenic losses (depending on the intensity of the fire, they are from 30 to 80% from the SOM), as well as post-fire losses associated with the microorganisms respiration and also erosion. Fire effect leads to an increase in the mobility of SOM. Twelve years after the fire, C stocks in pyrogenic soils (the entire profile) do not differ from those in control soils. If we consider only the surface organogenic horizons of soils – the recovery of C stocks in them is slow and reaches control values only 60 years after the fire, when the organogenic horizon significantly exceeds the control of C content. At the same time, the content of labile SOM (including microbial biomass carbon) is restored much faster than the total C. The pyrogenic effect changes the availability of SOM for its mineralization by microorganisms. As an ecosystem is restored after fire, the resistance of the SOM to mineralization increases and reaches characteristics typical for the control soils not earlier than 60 years after the fire. The main way of carbon transformation in post-fire soils is aerobic oxidation. The ability to methanogenesis is poorly expressed and completely compensated by the ability to oxidize methane.
This study was supported by RFBR (grant №18-34-00292).
- 15:00 An evaluation of the relationship between anomalous wind forcing, ocean heat transport and sea ice in a suite of Arctic model simulations
Authors: Morven Muilwijk ( University of Bergen/ Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Mehmet Ilicak ( Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Istanbul Technical University ); Lars Henrik Smedsrud ( University of Bergen/ Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research )
We use a suit of different Arctic Ocean model simulations from the FAMOS (Forum for Arctic Modeling and Observational Synthesis) community to analyze the effect of anomalous wind forcing in the Nordic Seas on poleward ocean heat transport, Atlantic Water transport routes and Arctic sea ice. This study is part of a coordinated modeling experiment, where the goal is to see how different models respond to abrupt ``step'' changes in external forcing fields, and to compute ``Climate Response Functions'' (CRFs). We focus on the sensitivity of Atlantic Water circulation to changes in the wind field in the Greenland Sea in relation to natural forcing variability, as manifested in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).
We find that anomalous strong or weak wind forcing in the Greenland Sea, which is comparable to a strong positive or strong negative NAO index, results in changes of the Atlantic Water flow in not only the Nordic Seas and Eurasian Basin, but also all the way north into the Canadian Arctic and all the way south of the subpolar gyre. In the Barents and Kara Seas there is a linear relationship between the anomalous Atlantic Water inflows resulting from our wind perturbations and the sea ice extent and volume. The models investigated generally agree in behavior, but there is a wide spread in the strength of responses, and also some differences in the timescales and spatial patterns of the responses. This can partly be explained by the different climatological states of the models and partly by differences in Atlantic Water pathways.
- 15:00 Method of the seasonal forecast of the ice extent of the Barents Sea
Authors: Natalia Glok ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute ); Genrikh Alexeev ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute ); Anastasia Vyazilova ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute ); Alexander Smirnov ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute )
A close relationship has been established between the temperature of the water entering from the North Atlantic into the Barents Sea and the ice extent in the Barents Sea, which accounts for up to 75% of the inter-annual variability of the monthly ice extent from January to June. In turn, changes in the temperature of incoming Atlantic water are associated with water temperature anomalies in the low latitudes of the North Atlantic. The mechanism of this connection includes the formation of SST anomalies in the low latitudes of the ocean, the enhancement of meridional transfers in the atmosphere and in the Atlantic Ocean. At the output in 2-3 years, there is an increase in winter atmospheric heat transfers through the "Atlantic gates" at 70 ° N. and the flow of Atlantic water into the Barents Sea, which affects the spread of sea ice. The established dependencies served as the basis for the development of the forecast method for ice cover. To separate the climate component in the interannual variability, the EOF decomposition of changes in the ice extent from January to June for 1979-2014 was used. The main component of the decomposition, reflecting 83% of the interannual variability of the ice extent, was compared with the SST anomalies. The relationship and delay between them was estimated, and a regression predictive model was constructed. A comparison of the prognostic and actual values for each of the 6 months showed the accuracy of the predictions with a lead time of 27 to 32 months within 79-83%.
- 15:00 Diisopropylnaphthalene in the surface sediments of an Arctic fjord: environmental significance
Authors: Neelu Singh ( Mangalore University ); C Krishnaiah ( Mangalore University )
Diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) has highly persistent and bioaccumulative properties, DIPN in the environment has not been thoroughly investigated. This is the first such report of DIPN in the sediments of Kongsfjorden. In this study surface sediment have been analyzed to track the presence of DIPN in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord fringing the International Arctic Research Facilities of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Increasing anthropogenic impacts in the form of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), related to human activities and increased use of fossil fuels have been observed at many places along the Arctic regions. Our studies suggest that the source of DIPN to the fjord could be a result of human activities at Ny-Ålesund and its environs While its present-day concentrations may not be alarming, considering the increasing activities at Ny-Ålesund, it might be prudent to exercise caution to ensure that the levels do not increase over time.
- 15:00 Benthic foraminiferal community of Kongsfjorden: Inter and inner annual changes driven by the environmental parameters
Authors: Olga Kniazeva ( Saint Petersburg State University )
During the last decades, our understanding of how the Arctic ecosystems function during the year has increased notably. However, our knowledge of the seasonal changes occurring in the high-latitude foraminiferal communities, as well as information on what environmental parameters may drive such changes is still limited. Moreover, in the light of the current Atlantification of the Arctic Ocean, the border areas, such as Svalbard, affected by both the Atlantic and the Arctic water masses throughout the year are of particular interest and can be considered as models to give an idea of what changes in the Arctic communities including benthic foraminifera we can expect in the future.
For this study we collected the bottom sediment near the glacier front in Kongsfjorden during various seasons (January, September 2015 and January, June 2016) and probed living foraminiferans with CellTracker Green fluorescent dye. Among the environmental data temperature and salinity were measured with CTD once a season, whereas the sediment data such as organic carbon content and grain size were collected for each station.
Strong input of Atlantic water to the fjord head which happened in 2015 led to the unexpectedly high abundance of living foraminifera that notably decrease in the following year. Almost no shift in the number of species was recorded between two years, however, the species composition showed clear patterns for winter and vegetation periods. Although, the number of living protists did not restore in the late spring, the structure of the community itself came back to the state it was before winter rather rapidly.
Surprisingly, organic carbon content in the sediment did not change significantly between the seasons and did not demonstrate any correlation with the foraminiferal fauna. On the contrary, the sediment grain size varied with the month and turned out to be one of the environmental parameters that drive the shifts in the community. In particular, an increase of coarse fraction on certain stations favoured the emergence of the Islandiella helenae – Labrospira crassimargo assemblage in the sediments strongly affected by the glacial meltwater runoff, despite I. helenae usually inhabiting more distant from the glacier sediments.
The research is supported by the RSCF grant 16-47-02009 and RFBR grant 18-34-00823.
- 15:00 Evaluation of six atmospheric reanalyses over Arctic sea ice during winter and spring
Authors: Robert Graham ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Lana Cohen ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Nicole Ritzhaupt ( Bonn University ); Benjamin Segger ( Alfred Wegener Institute ); Rune G. Graversen ( University of Tromsø ); Annette Rinke ( Alfred Wegener Institute ); Von P. Walden ( Washington State University ); Mats A. Granskog ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Stephen R. Hudson ( Norwegian Polar Institute )
This study evaluates the performance of six atmospheric reanalyses (ERA-Interim, ERA5, JRA-55, CFSv2, MERRA‑2 and ASRv2) over Arctic sea ice during winter and spring. The reanalyses are evaluated using observations from the Norwegian young sea-ICE campaign (N‑ICE2015); a five-month ice drift in pack-ice north of Svalbard. N‑ICE2015 observations include surface meteorology, vertical profiles from radiosondes, as well as radiative and turbulent heat fluxes. During winter (January-March), correlation coefficients (R) between the reanalyses and observations were above 0.90 for the mean sea level pressure, 2 m temperature, total column water vapour, and downward longwave flux. All reanalyses had a positive wintertime 2 m temperature bias, ranging from 1–4˚C, and negative (i.e. upward) net longwave bias of 3–19 W m-2. These biases are associated with poorly represented surface inversions and, therefore, occurred mostly during cold-stable periods. Notably, the biases were not smaller in the newly released ERA5 or Arctic regional reanalysis ASRv2. The negative net longwave bias was compounded by substantial negative (upward) sensible and latent heat flux biases, resulting in large negative residual heat flux biases during winter for all products. In spring (April-June), the reanalyses failed to simulate observed persistent cloud layers, and therefore overestimated the downward shortwave flux by 1–82 W m‑2 and underestimated the downward longwave flux by 0–41 W m-2. This resulted in large positive residual heat flux biases in all reanalyses during summer. While optimised for the Arctic, surface energy budget biases in ASRv2 were larger than several of the global reanalyses.
- 15:00 WorldView-3 Satellite Imagery for Mapping Glacier Surfaces in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard
Authors: Sagar F. Wankhede ( National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research ); Shridhar D. Jawak ( Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System ); Alvarinho J. Luis ( National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research ); Manoj Patley ( G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development ); Prashant H. Pandit ( National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Indian Council of Agriculture Research ); Timothy Warjri ( Savitribai Phule Pune University )
Glacier facies represent distinct zonations on a glacier, identified due to their specific attributes. The occurrence and distribution of debris on the surface of a glacier influences melt rates owing to its capacity either to act as an insulator under certain conditions or to act as an indicator of the recession of the glacier. These properties coupled with the variability of several facies over the surface of a single glacier promote protean intra-glacier melt rates. This information is vital to the calibration of 3-dimensional mass balance models, as the accurate knowledge of every glacier facies on a glacier will fill out any void site/pixel in the model. Therefore, the extraction of glacier facies, with emphasis on the accuracy is crucial to the origins of 3-dimensional complex modelling. Spatial and spectral resolutions play a key role in their respective capacities in determining the quality of the final extraction. Similar methods however, do not have the same effect across all spectrums of resolutions. This study investigates the capacity of the high-resolution WorldView-3 satellite data, in an effort to map glacier facies across the Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. A thorough preprocessing protocol is devised to extricate noise free spectral information from the data. The extraction of facies in this study occurs through the comparative assessment of pixel and object-based classification techniques. Two pixel-based classifiers namely, (a) Mahalanobis Distance (MHD), and (b) Minimum Distance to Mean (MD), are tested against the thresholded, rule-set-based object-based classification. Application of the object-based domain allowed for the use of several existing spectral indices in the formulation of the rule sets. This domain also provided the opportunity to create a new index from the two near Infrared bands offered by this sensor. This study, in addition to comparing the accuracies achieved from classification of the aforementioned techniques, proposes the new customized spectral index ratio. The object-based classification achieved greater overall accuracy (77.14%) in comparison to the pixel-based classifiers. Future studies will involve refinement of the proposed, as well as addition of new classification techniques.
- 15:00 Wave Processes in the High Latitude Lower Ionosphere as an Indicator of Mesospheric Temperature
Authors: Sergei Cherniakov ( Polar Geophysical Institute )
Temperature changing in the mesosphere of the Arctic region during the warming in the Arctic can be considered by using wave processes in the atmosphere. When studying weather processes it is expedient to consider the atmosphere‐ionosphere system of the Earth. In the system various types of wave processes are possible. The atmosphere consists of a number of geospheres – troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere as well as the ionosphere consists of the D, E and F regions. The D region is located at the heights of 50‐90 km and is in the mesosphere and partially in the thermosphere. The processes happening in the atmosphere exert direct impact on behaviour of D region of the ionosphere. Processes in the D region are studied with the use of model and experimental methods: radio wave propagation, starts of rockets, facilities of partial reflections etc. One of the partial reflection facilities is located in the Arctic region at the observatory Tumanny of the Polar Geophysical Institute, Russia, in the Murmansk region (69.0 N, 35.7 E). It gives a two‐dimensional picture of amplitudes of the partially reflected ordinary and extraordinary waves and electron concentration at the heights of D region. Basic acoustic-gravity wave theory in the atmosphere describes many of wave-like oscillations in the atmosphere. The atmosphere is compressible gas which after being compressed then released and began to oscillate near its equilibrium state. The first oscillation frequency is defined as an acoustic cut-off frequency and the second characteristic frequency of the atmosphere is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency which is defined as the buoyancy frequency at which a vertically displaced parcel will oscillate within a statically stable environment. During our observation at the partial reflection facility we receive wave spectra at different heights of the ionosphere. As the result of the analyses of our experimental spectra on the basis of the theory of acoustic-gravity waves and the empirical model of composition and temperature of the atmosphere (NRLMSISE-00) the periods of oscillations with the acoustic cut-off period and the Brunt-Väisälä period, corresponding to resonance atmosphere periods, are identified. It gives to us a possibility to receive temperature at the chosen heights of the mesosphere. In the work description of the facility and the method are presented as well as preliminary results of temperature calculations for different
- 15:00 State of the Arctic sea ice - from a climate perspective
Authors: Signe Aaboe ( Norwegian Meteorological Institute )
The sea ice cover has shown a mean decline for several decades in the Arctic and even in the Antarctic for the last couple of years. The overall decline is a strong indicator of the ongoing changes in the polar regions and is often used in the media as a visible example for climate changes.
In order to monitor the sea ice conditions in the harsh polar regions, the satellite remote sensing has been priceless to get global overviews on a daily basis through both summer and winter. Within the 40 years of passive microwave imaging, the negative trends of Arctic sea ice cover are very clear. Despite larger variabilities, the winter months in 2017/2018 all had record low sea ice extent in the Arctic, whereas the record highs occurred in late 70’s/early 80’s for all 12 months. Not only the extent of sea ice has declined, but also the type of sea ice is changing. The older ice is becoming younger (and thereby thinner) and the areal coverage of the older ice is diminishing, making the remaining sea ice much more vulnerable for further break-ups and melting.
Since early 2000, several European collaborations - among others the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI), and the EU Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) - have resulted in quality-assured and consistent sea ice products from satellite observations including both operational near-real-time production and long reprocessed climate data records. State of the Arctic sea ice and trends in its extent, the ice types and the behaviour of the ice will here be presented based on these freely available products.
- 15:00 Can we detect changes in Arctic ecosystems? (ARISE)
Authors: Sophie Smout ( St Andrews University ); Claire Mahaffy ( Liverpool University ); Alessandro Tagliabue ( Liverpool University ); George Wolff ( Liverpool University ); Jo Hopkins ( Liverpool University ); Raja Ganeshram ( Edinburgh University ); Louisa Norman ( University of Liverpool ); Camille de la Vega ( Liverpool University ); James Grecian ( University of St Andrews ); Jo Kershaw ( University of st Andrews ); Rachel Jeffreys ( Liverpool University )
Due to unprecedented rates of environmental change, the Arctic is now a crucible of multiple concurrent stressors. Understanding how food webs are being reshaped over different spatial and temporal scales in response to these stressors is crucial in addressingthe impacts of future change on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Stable isotopes of nitrogen (14N, 15N) and carbon (12C,13C) have the potential to be important food web tracers due to the isotopic discrimination in 15N by ~ 2-5 per mil (‰) and 13C by <1‰ with each trophic transfer. This approach provides quantitative information on trophic position; however, the isotopic signal at each trophic level is sensitive to the 15N and 13C at the base of the food web, termed the ‘isoscape’. This is likely to vary in response to environmental change in the Arctic. Determining the inferred trophic position of an Arctic predator, such as pelagic-feeding sealscould be problematic for two reasons. There may be strong spatio-temporal gradients in the isoscape across the Arctic, and seals may migrate and forage widely so that they are exposed to a variety of isoscapes. The goal of ARISE, a NERC-funded Changing Arctic Ocean project, is to develop a new framework to detect and attribute changes to Arctic food webs during periods of decadal change.Rather than evaluate an entire ecosystem, the ARISE project will take a specific focus on the base of the food web and two species of pelagic-feeding ice-dependent predators, the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus)and the ringed seal(Phoca hispida), which are excellent ‘indicator species’ of food web functioning. Due to their wide Arctic distributions, long-range migrations and thus substantial time spent at sea, as well as flexible foraging patterns, these seals are exposed to multiple stressors across the Arctic region and so are excellent candidates for this study. The project will be underpinned by isoscape modelling, by a seasonally resolved, pan-Arctic fieldwork programme, by the analysis of long time-series seal samples, and also the analysis of harp seal telemetry data from different decades and from the East and West Atlantic. This should allow a pan-Arctic, multi-decadal perspective on the impact of environmental change on Arctic foodwebs.
- 15:00 A relationship between Arctic sea ice and surface air temperature variability over the northern continents
Authors: Tatiana Matveeva ( Lomonosov Moscow State University, A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, Institute of Geography RAS ); Vladimir Semenov ( A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, Institute of Geography RAS )
The Arctic is the region showing the strongest warming trend on Earth in the last century. Sea ice is one of the most important parameters of the polar climate system. It is suggested that sea ice is an important factor influencing surface air temperatures (SAT) in the Arctic and through to several feedback mechanisms those two parameters are strongly interconnected. To reveal and assess strength and extent of these relationships we used observational monthly mean sea ice extent (SIE) and land surface air temperature anomaly data from Met Office Hadley Centre. The relations between regional SIE of different Arctic marginal seas and SATs over the northern continents were analyzed using correlation analysis. Significant correlations between SATs and regional SIA were found close to the considered marginal seas for the periods from 1953 to 2017 and 1979 to 2017. Our results suggest a great importance of near-Atlantic marginal seas for Arctic temperature variation. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on SATs and sea ice in the near-Atlantic region was confirmed. Furthermore, correlations to SATs in distant regions are indicated that have to be confirmed by additional investigations. Also correlations between SIE of different Arctic marginal seas and SAT over northern continents were also analyzed.
- 15:00 Seasonal activity of sympagic meiofauna in a high-Arctic fjord
Authors: Vanessa Pitusi ( Universitetet i Tromsø ); Rolf Gradinger ( University in Tromsø ); Miriam Marquardt ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Janne Søreide ( University Centre in Svalbard )
Sea ice offers a unique habitat to pelagic and benthic organisms, and their larvae. This sympagic (“ice-associated”) fauna colonizes the brine channels, which form during the formation of sea ice when salt is rejected from the freshwater lattice. Microscopic ice algae grow within the brine channels and provide an early nutritious food source to sympagic and pelagic fauna after a dark and relatively unproductive winter.
Although sea ice is such a vital component of the Arctic marine ecosystem, little work has been conducted on seasonal landfast ice. Studies on the faunal assemblages inhabiting seasonal sea ice are urgently needed in order to assess the importance of sea ice as a nursery ground in coastal marine Arctic ecosystems, especially in the light of the changing sea ice conditions in the Arctic due to anthropogenic and natural climate change.Svalbard has experienced the greatest temperature increase over the past three decades, of all Arctic regions, which has led to warmer winter temperatures and a loss in first year ice extend, especially in winter. Increased input of warm Atlantic Water is leading to the inhibition of sea ice formation in winter, which is evident in the loss of sea ice in Isfjorden and Van Mijenfjorden.
This study investigates the seasonal development and community composition of sympagic meiofauna along a depth transect in Van Mijenfjorden (77°N, 15/16°W), Svalbard. This investigation is based on data collected in 2015 and aims to contribute towards the establishment of a broader database on sea ice ecology in the European Arctic, which is poor to this date. Through the collection of ice cores from seasonal landfast ice, total metazoan abundance and ice algal biomass was determined in Van Mijenfjorden throughout spring 2017. In addition to core samples, 20 μm zooplankton net samples were collected to assess the strength of sympagic-pelagic coupling in the fjord.
Of all taxa found in the ice, nematodes and polychaetes tend to dominate numerically. Although these taxa are numerous, little is known about their ecology and which species inhabit the sea ice. This thesis attempts to identify nematodes and polychaetes to the lowest level possible through the use of molecular tools. Additionally, growth experiments were used to mimic polychaete larval growth under various natural conditions to see whether differences in food availability had an impact on size increase.
- 15:00 Assessment of the river ecosystems state of the Kolsky North based on trends in the chemical composition of water
Authors: Victor Reshetnyak ( Institute of Earth Sciences of the South Federal University ); Olga Reshetnyak ( Institute of Earth Sciences of the South Federal University )
The problem of the impact of climate and anthropogenic changes on the state aquatic ecosystems has been given great attention. It is especially actual for the Arctic region. As is known, arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to the global changes, which determine the transformation of the chemical composition of river waters. The heterogeneity of spatial distribution in the water objects of the Russian Arctic of iron and zinc compounds, mineral forms of nitrogen, organic substances and petroleum products is observed.
The processes of evolutionary growth or reduction in the chemicals concentrations in the Arctic river waters are more likely for individual water bodies than for entire territories, and decreasing trends are greater than increasing ones. The only exception was water ecosystems of the Kola North, for which a gradual increase in the sulfates, nickel and iron compounds was revealed.
In this paper, an attempt is made to assess the state (degree of transformation) of the Kola North rivers ecosystems by the share of parameters that have trends. This approach is described in detail in [Norine E. et.al, 2010], in which the authors classified ecosystems as "healthy" - these are ecosystems for which trends have less than 50% of indicators, "disturbed" - more than 75% and "transitional" - from 50% to 75% of indicators with trends.
Trend analysis in the river water chemical composition of the Kola North performed for 12-15 hydrochemical indicators (from 1985 to 2015). It is allowed to group river ecosystems according to identified trends:
1) 1 to 3 trends were identified for the Ura, Lotta, Teriberka, Wyrma, Ponoy and Patso-yoka Rivers (8 to 28% of the indicators have a trend);
2) 5-6 trends were identified for the Pechenga, Kola, Luotn-yoki and Kolos-yoki Rivers (from 33 to 46%);
3) 7 trends and more were identified for the Rosta, Nama-Yoki and Hauki-lampi-yoki Rivers (from 50 to 79%).
Thus, the most of the studied river ecosystems refer to the gradation of "healthy" ecosystems. The Rosta and Nama-Yoki Rivers are in a "transitional state" and additional anthropogenic impact can enhance the transformation of the chemical composition of the aquatic environment, and ecosystems can enter the state of "disturbed ecosystems" (the Hauki-lampi-yoki River).
*The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 18-05-60165).
- 15:00 Statistics of the White and Barents Seas Storm Surges Based on Numerical Simulations for the 1979-2015 Period
Authors: Anastasia Korablina ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Investigations of the surge level fluctuations in the Barents and the White Seas have a long history. The results of earlier studies using the observational data analysis, the average and extreme characteristics of dangerous level rises were obtained, classification of cyclones causing storm surges was carried out, based on the trajectories of their motion over the Barents and White Seas water areas. The features of sea level surge oscillations during the passage of various types of cyclones are considered. In particular, it is stated that deep cyclones passing above the Barents Sea generate a barometric wave, which then penetrates the White Sea and induces surging. Also estimates were obtained for the pressure and wind forces relative contribution to the surges formation in various synoptic situations. However, these results mainly refer to the period before the 80s of the last century and therefore need to be revised, updated and significantly supplemented with new data.
The our results of the White and Barents Seas surges numerical simulations using the hydrodynamicic model ADCIRC, adapted to these seas conditions, in conjunction with the spectral wave model SWAN are presented.
In this paper, the term “surge” means water level elevation, caused by atmospheric pressure changes and wind action, above the sea surface, distorted by tides and low frequency oscillations.
Calculations have been made on the unstructured mesh of high spatial resolution, covering both the White and the Barents Seas with a minimum step of 50 m in the coastal
The input involved the data of NCEP/CFSR reanalysis from 1979 to 2015 on wind, atmospheric pressure and ice concentration fields, and the tides at the open boundary is derived from FES 2008 database with a 1/8°.resolution.
The results of this work include:
- The analysis of synoptic situations leading to surge occurrence;
- The estimations of seasonal and interannual variability of surge events;
- The assessment of wind, atmospheric pressure and wind waves forcing relative contribution to the surge formation;
- The calculations of surge height extreme values which are possible once in a hundred years.
- 15:00 Developing and establishing an Arctic Safety Centre in Longyearbyen in Svalbard
Authors: Ann Christin Auestad ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Hanne Hvitdfeldt Christiansen ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Fred Skancke Hansen ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Martin Indreiten ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Eirik Albrechtsen ( NTNU ); Eirik Albrechtsen ( NTNU ); Are Kristoffer Sydnes ( UiT Norges Arktiske Universitet ); Hrefna Gunnarsdottir ( University Centre in Svalbard )
The natural environment of the Arctic is undergoing a rapid change, while at the same time the interest in geo-political presence and economic development in the region has never been greater. As a consequence the need to strengthen competencies to operate in a safe and environmentally best way in the Arctic is acute and extremely relevant. As a response to this the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) has taken the initiative to develop an Arctic Safety Centre (ASC) together with several national and international partners. This has been possible as the ASC obtained funding from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Arctic 2030 program for the period 2017 to 2019.
The mission of ASC is to contribute to safe and sustainable human activity in the Arctic through research, education and outreach. ASC’s main activity has been to develop a comprehensive university level research-based educational program on Arctic safety. ASC is furthermore responsible for facilitating a conference on Arctic safety which will be held in Longyearbyen in May 2019. Other activities have included the collaboration of local experts, authorities and companies who have developed an innovative, local observations network for improved snow avalanche observation. ASC has also offered one of the first field safety courses for field station leaders, which was developed in close collaboration with the EU project INTERACT.
In summer 2018, the first course of the ASC, the pilot course AS-301 ‘Risk assessment of Natural Arctic Hazards’ was run. In addition to the pilot course, the following master courses will be offered in fall 2019 when ASC formally starts its operations: AS-302 Risk, Technology and Human Performance in Arctic Operations; AS-303 Safety Management in the Arctic and; AS-304 Emergency preparedness and response in the Arctic. The course offer is interdisciplinary, targeting not only natural science students, but also students from engineering, social sciences and law from Norwegian and international universities. The Centre’s location in Svalbard allows it to draw from local expertise including UNIS’s more than 20 years’ experience with Arctic Safety and meet the increased need from national and international partners for specialized Arctic safety training. The center is partner in several research projects regarding Arctic safety and plays a vital role in building awareness of safety in several different ways in the society of Longyearbyen. The center organizes open seminars on different Arctic safety topics from avalanches to polar bear safety to a very dynamic population.
- 15:00 Fish production in Arctic food webs: Are cod more productive than polar cod?
A comparison of P/B ratio and production of cod and polar cod in the Barents Sea.
Authors: Evgeniia Raskhozheva ( Murmansk Marine Biological Institute Kola Scientific Centre Russian Academy of Sciences )
Production and production-to-biomass ratio (P/B ratio) are a quantitative base of energy flow and channeling of matter from lower to higher trophic levels and thus constitute key parameters of marine ecosystem functioning. The goal this study is to compare productional characteristics of two important species in Arctic food webs such as cod Gadus morhua and polar cod Boreogadus saida. Annual production is estimated by the Increment Summation Method using original and available published data on abundance, biomass, fecundity, size-at-age and sex structure in the Barents Sea in 1934–2013. Generative production is equal to the mature females and males gonads weight. The P/B ratio is calculated for each age group of the sample in 1000 number and then is averaged for the whole population. In order to estimate total production P/B ratio is multiplied by the mean cohort biomass from ICES AFWG Report. Polar cod has not only higher P/B ratio (0.63–1.10) but also the ratio of generative and somatic production is greater (Pg/Ps 0.1–1.2) than those cod has (P/B ratio 0.38–0.58, Pg/Ps 0.1–0.6). Polar cod shows a significant increase in P/B ratio over the period 1969–2004, but also a significant decline in 2005–2008 and 2013. Cod shows no apparent trends in P/B ratio. But it should be noted that P/B ratio of cod was lower in 1934–1938 and 1946–1950 (in average 0.42) than in 1951–2006 (in average 0.50). Total production of commercial part of cod population ranges from 0.4 to 2.0 million tonnes and varies 0.1–2.2 million tonnes for polar cod.
In the presentation P/B ratio variability is discussed and is suggested that this change should be attributed not only to the loss of large individuals due to fishing but also may be a result of a shift in a size-age structure in response to environmental influence on fish biological processes. A warmer Arctic is likely to have impacts on increasing energy flow through polar cod. Why there is not a relationship with a turnover rate of cod?
- 15:00 Temporal patterns in the acoustic presence and vocal behavior of marine mammals in central Fram Strait
Authors: Karolin Thomisch ( Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung ); Olaf Boebel ( Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung ); Svenja Neumann ( Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung ); Stefanie Spiesecke ( Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung ); Ilse Van Opzeeland ( Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung )
Passive acoustic monitoring enables data collection on marine mammals over large temporal and spatial scales and in remote areas such as the Arctic Ocean. Passive acoustic data are collected at different recording sites in eastern and central Fram Strait since 2012, contributing to the Arctic Observatory FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic Marine Monitoring). Here, data recorded at 78°50 N, 0°E from July to November 2012 were analyzed for the daily acoustic presence of marine mammals. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) were acoustically present during 12 days in October and during 16 days in November, but acoustically absent from July to September. Downsweep song (three types) was present both in October and November, while upsweep song (one type) was only present in October. Besides bowhead whales, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whales (B. physalus), narwhals (Monodon monoceros), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) were recorded. Acoustic species interactions regarding the overlap of species-specific sounds in time and frequency range were explored. In this context, temporal and spectral overlap of biophonic (blue and fin whale vocalizations) and anthrophonic (airgun) signals were detected in the low-frequency (<100 Hz) spectrum. Our results emphasize the importance of Fram Strait as marine mammal habitat, possibly providing (summer) feeding opportunities for blue and fin whales and an overwintering ground for bowhead whales and narwhals. Understanding the spatio-temporal patterns in the distribution and acoustic behavior of marine mammals considerably benefits the development of effective conservation and management strategies for critical habitats in the Arctic Ocean.
- 15:00 Algal pigments in sediments of four Spitsbergen fjords as biomarkers of environmental conditions
Authors: Magdalena Krajewska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Małgorzata Szymczak- Żyła ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Grażyna Kowalewska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
This work presents pigment (chloropigments-a, -b, chlorophylls-c and carotenoids) distribution in sediments of four Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway) fjords: Hornsund, Kongsfjorden, Adventfjorden and Raudfjorden in relation to environmental conditions. Kongsfjorden is under the influence of four, while Hornsund - of fourteen glaciers. On the other side, to Kongsfjorden inflow warm Atlantic waters (West Spitsbergen Current) and to Hornsund both the warm Atlantic waters (West Spitsbergen Current) and the cold Arctic waters (Sørkapp Current). Adventfjorden is a part of Isfjorden, located near main city of Svalbard - Longyearbyen. Adventfjorden, like whole Isfjorden, is influenced by two large rivers: Adventelva and Longyearelva, which are fed by meltwater from glaciers. During winter fjord covers one-year ice layer and the inflow of material from the land ceases. Raudfjorden is located on the north-west coast of Spitsbergen. This fjord is so far the least studied of all of the examined in this work basins. At present, the highest temperature increase in the world is observed in Arctic, which causes faster glacier and snow cover melting. This freshwater has a direct impact on the fjord ecosystems. The aim of this work was to compare primary production, phytoplankton taxonomy, sources of organic matter and changes in environmental conditions in four Spitsbergen fjords located from 76°56.165’N to 79°48.354’N based on pigments in recent sediments. The sediments (20 – 29 cm) were taken with the core sampler during cruise of r.v. ’Oceania’, in July and August 2017. The cores were sliced into 1 cm layers and frozen (-20°C) on board immediately after collection. Pigments were analysed using HPLC-DAD/FL. Additionally, grain size distribution, carbon and nitrogen content, Pb210 and Cs137 were done, to recognize characteristics and age of sediments. Results indicate that primary production is highest in Raudfjorden and/or conditions there were more favourable for pigment preservation in sediments. Zooplankton grazing influence organic matter decomposition mainly in Hornsund. The best oxygen conditions were in Adventfjorden. Diatoms, dinoflagellates and haptophytes constitute the majority of plant biomass in the studied fjords with dominance of diatoms in Adventfjorden. Organic matter has different origin in the studied fjords, with predominance of marine origin material in Kongsfjorden and Raudfjorden, terrigenous in Adventfjorden and mixed - marine and terrigenous, in Hornsund.
This research was partly financed within the framework of grant No. 2016/21/N/ST10/03240 from the National Science Centre in Poland.
- 15:00 Sympagic meiofauna diversity and community structure in eastern Svalbard
Authors: Magnus Heide Andreasen ( The University Centre in Svalbard )
Diminishing sea ice cover rises direct challenges to marine life that relies on sea ice as nursery, feeding or hunting grounds. Due to the size restriction of the mosaic of brine channels inside sea ice, most ice-associated (sympagic) fauna in land-fast sea ice is size-characterized as meiofauna (20-500 μm). Little is known about the biodiversity and community composition of sympagic meiofauna in Svalbard’s coastal regions, and thus also the role of sea ice as a habitat for these tiny organisms, i.e. mainly larvae of benthic invertebrates.
In this study, we investigate the community composition and distribution of sympagic meiofauna in two fjords in eastern Svalbard. Besides ice core samples, we also study the distribution of meiofauna in the water column to determine whether these larvae rely on the sea ice as a habitat or not. Three sampling campaigns in spring 2018 were conducted. Ice cores were sectioned to examine vertical abundance in sympagic meiofauna and chlorophyll a concentration, and to determine the physical environment of the ice, i.e. salinity, temperature and brine volume. Measures of water column temperature, salinity, depth and irradiation along with ice thickness, snow depth and freeboard gave insight into the physical environment. To ensure accurate identification of juvenile stages of nematodes and polychaetes, visual identification is supported by molecular barcoding. In addition, length measurements of identified juveniles were conducted to provide more insight into these species’ life history strategies.
This study provides important baseline information on the abiotic and biotic sea ice environment in eastern Svalbard. The ice diatom Melosira arctica was recorded in land-fast sea ice here for the first time in Svalbard, suggesting that eastern Svalbard can serve as a suitable model area for monitoring the response to the diminishing sea ice in even more inaccessible parts of the high Arctic.
- 15:00 Arctic Soil response to summer and winter climate extreme
Authors: Maki Miura ( Bangor University ); Davey Jones ( Bangor University ); Paul Hill ( Bangor Universty ); Timothy Jones ( Bangor University )
The Arctic is warming at a faster rate than other latitudes, especially in winter. Increasing temperatures are likely to significantly impact on terrestrial carbon cycling processes associated with plants and soil microbial communities. Although the magnitude of warming in the Arctic is well modelled, the potentials feedbacks of Arctic soils to the atmosphere are not well understood. To better understand the response of Arctic soils to climate change, we simulated Arctic summer and winter (frozen and non-frozen) conditions and measured gaseous carbon emissions and dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations. Two soil types were tested; dry heath dominated by Saxifrage and peat dominated by Sphagnum, using soil cores collected from Svalbard. Overall, we found that winter warming induced strong biophysical changes in soil-plant carbon cycling. The results will be discussed at the conference.
- 15:00 Zooplankton seasonal dynamics and the importance of Pseudocalanus spp. in Svalbard coastal waters
Authors: Margot Nyeggen ( UNIS ); Janne Søreide ( UNIS ); Dag Aksnes ( University of Bergen )
The fjords in Svalbard are influenced by both Arctic and Atlantic water, where the distribution of the water masses change depending on location and the time of the year. Due to higher influence of Atlantic water, the west coast of Svalbard is relatively mild and ice-free year-round, while the east coast generally has a colder climate and seasonal ice cover.
Zooplankton is an important component of the Arctic food web, being the key link between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Copepods are generally dominating in the zooplankton communities. While most studies of Arctic marine zooplankton have been done on the larger copepod species, the smaller but often more abundant genera remain relatively poorly studied. Some of these are the calanoid copepods of the genus Pseudocalanus. Thought to be an important taxon in the Arctic ecosystem, much remain unknown in terms of their species distributions and biology. It is hypothesised that the three species Pseudocalanus acuspes, P. minutus and P. moultoni co-exist in Svalbard waters, but have different timing of reproduction.
To study the seasonal zooplankton community development and the importance of Pseudocalanus in the Arctic, Adventfjorden on the west coast of Svalbard was sampled monthly from March to September 2018. Furthermore, the seasonally ice-covered fjords Agardhbukta and Inglefieldbukta on the east coast and Van Mijenfjorden on the west coast were sampled in spring, with the aim of describing the importance of sea ice for shaping the zooplankton communities. Besides sea ice, the hydrography was recorded, as well as the food availability in terms of chlorophyll a biomass. Zooplankton was sampled by a WP2 net with 60 μm mesh and specimens were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The life history of Pseudocalanus spp. were studied by identifying the population structure of the genus and to genetically identify adult females to species level when present.
Regarding copepod species composition, preliminary results from Adventfjorden indicate a numerical dominance of Oithona spp., followed by Pseudocalanus spp., with the reversed dominance order in the seasonally ice-covered Agardhbukta. Stage composition of Pseudocalanus spp. indicate two main peaks in adult female abundance: one small in spring, followed by one larger in autumn. Ongoing molecular analyses will confirm if this is due to species specific difference in timing of reproduction or not. This study provides important baseline-knowledge on zooplankton seasonal dynamics which is of importance to identify potential changes in a rapidly changing Arctic.
- 15:00 The role of Atlantic heat transport in future Arctic winter sea ice variability and predictability
Authors: Marius Årthun ( University of Bergen ); Lars Henrik Smedsrud ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Tor Eldevik ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Stephen Yeager ( National Center for Atmospheric Research )
During recent decades Arctic sea ice variability and retreat during winter have largely been a result of variable ocean heat transport. The relationship between ocean heat and sea ice anomalies has allowed for skillful predictions of winter sea ice extent, especially in the Barents Sea. Here we use the CESM large ensemble simulation to disentangle internally and externally forced winter Arctic sea ice variability, and to assess to what extent future internal sea ice variability is predictably linked to Atlantic heat transport. We find that in a warming world (RCP8.5) interannual to decadal winter sea ice variability is predominately driven by internal variability, whereas external variability is more important for multi-decadal sea ice trends. Ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea is a major source of internal Arctic sea ice variability today and in the future, and, as a consequence, ocean heat transport remains a good predictor of Arctic winter sea ice variability within this century. The future increase in ocean heat transport is carried by warmer water as the current itself is found to weaken. The warmer Atlantic water spreads downstream from the Barents Sea and further into the Arctic Ocean, leading to substantial changes in sea ice thickness.
- 15:00 Integrated environmental studies in the Svalbard region with respect to climate changes.
Authors: Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Paulina Pakszys ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Marcin Wichorowski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Ewa Piechowska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
The Arctic and thus the Svalbard region are undergoing rapid climate changes, which is manifested in many ways, e.g. temperature changes are over 3 times greater than the average for the Northern Hemisphere. This phenomenon is commonly known as the Arctic amplification. The current environmental state of Svalbard and sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around the archipelago, may reflect the situation which can be expected in the Arctic in less than 50 years from now. Therefore, since this is a key area to investigate, and the changes are very rapid and effect the entire environment, our research must be interdisciplinary.
Starting 1 October 2018, at the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, we are realizing a Ph.D. program, which presents a holistic approach to the description of environmental changes in the Svalbard region. The study involves creation of an integrated system to analyze environmental data, which have been collected in the Svalbard area by the Institute researchers over the past decades, with a special focus to the period 2013-2018. The novelty of this approach is that this system will facilitate the application of mechanisms for the combination of heterogeneous environmental data, which have been collected during the field studies, through defining of the association ontology between the data and the mechanisms of functional interconnections among data, with initial analysis of these interconnections. Such a dataset will facilitate more efficient search for environmental data as well as more complex description of the Svalbard ecosystem.
- 15:00 The Barents Sea cooler in a warming ocean
Authors: Vidar S. Lien ( Institute of Marine Research ); Øystein Skagseth ( Institute of Marine Research ); Helene Asbjørnsen ( University of Bergen )
The Barents Sea function as a cooling machine that extracts heat from the relative warm Atlantic Inflow before it leaves mainly at depth. Here we investigate the response of the Barents Sea system to the 1.5-2oC warming of the Atlantic Inflow from the 1980s to the period after 2000s, utilizing the annual hydrographic survey data during fall over the period 1970-2017. As expectedly connected to the reduced ice cover there is an increased ocean to air heat loss in the north-eastern Barents Sea, but this does not fully compensate the reduced heat loss upstream. Consequently, the water mass transformation in the Barents Sea has become less vigorous during the warm 2000s. We discuss the associated spatio-temporal hydrographic changes both with respect to the local conditions in the Barents Sea and on the outflowing dense water.
- 15:00 Towards safe and economic maritime operations of Arctic cargo ships
Authors: Zhiyuan Li ( Chalmers University of Techonlogy ); Bing Hu ( China COSCO Shipping Corporation Limited ); Erik Vroegrijk ( Lloyd’s Register ); Ilkka Saisto ( Aker Arctic Technology Inc. ); Jonas W. Ringsberg ( Chalmers University of Techonlogy )
We present a framework for safe and economic maritime operations of Arctic cargo ships. The framework comprises analyses from various perspectives and targets at safety and fuel efficiency of existing and future cargo vessels that are designed mainly for open water operations. International and national regulatory requirements regarding Northern Sea Route transits were examined. The state of Arctic shipping is summarized and analyzed using data from shipping companies. Technical enhancement for Arctic maritime operations were investigated, which is manifested by an Arctic voyage planning tool. These technical tools quantify Arctic related risks as well as the extra resistance induced by sea ice, which are thus considered useful decision-support means for Arctic maritime operations. This article also proves the potential for efficiency gains in Arctic transits from the technical enhancement.
- 15:00 How to make surfaces anti-icing
Authors: Bodil Holst ( University of Bergen ); Naureen Akhtar ( University of Bergen )
A smart arctic requires a range of technological solutions which have to work in extreeme climate conditions. A major problem for any technological solution that is to work in an outdoor arctic environment is the fact that the surfaces get coated in ice. This is an issue for a huge range of equipment and infrastructures from cars to airplanes, shipping, wind mill parks, power transmission and telecommunication. A significant amount of work has been dedicated to the development of icephobic surfaces, often with the basis in superhydrophobicity. However, most surfaces investigated so far have not been very robust (an issue for operation in harsh and high humidity environments such as they are often found in the Arctic). Anti-icing strategies for practical applications in harsh environments have therefore mainly been related to the development of heatable coatings and/or mechanical removal or, in the case of airplanes, de-icing with glycol. Here we present an overview of existing anti-icing solutions and in particular we present a new, robust and lightweight anti-icing coating which we have recently developed (1). It is based on flourinated graphene and can be used on a broad range of surfaces. The new coating delays ice formation for a striking 90 min at -15 °C up to 6 h and 45 min at -5 °C. All experiments were carried out at high humidity (50–55%). We also present first experiments of anti-icing on pure graphene. The very superior performance of the fluorinated graphene can be explained as a favourable combination of very low surface energy and nanoscale roughness.
1) N. Akhtar, G. Anemone, D. Farias and B. Holst, Fluorinated graphene provides long lasting ice inhibition in high humidity, Accepted for publication in Carbon https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.09.008
- 15:00 Aker BP's Field of the Future Development Concept
Authors: Kjetil Aasoldsen ( Aker BP ); Bård Atle Hovd ( Aker BP ); Terje Solheim ( Aker BP ); Knut Jogeir Landa ( Aker BP )
Compared to other industries, the oil and gas industry has a value potential by including new technology and digitalization in future field developments.
Aker BP also believes there is a value potential by working smarter (maximize flow efficiency) and reduce waste in processes internally and between suppliers and other partners.
To take on these opportunities, Aker BP has defined a field development concept we call Field of the Future. The solution is defined by 4 key principles
- Unmanned facilities
- Remotely operated
- All electric
- Zero emissions/discharges
Digitalization is a fundamental part of the concept, with the use of autonomous operations, predictive analytics, digital processes and digital workflows.
Aker BP is working closely with strategic suppliers through alliances and academia to develop the concept.
By doing so we see future field developments with improved HSE, reduced capital investments, high uptime and reduced operational expenses.
According to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Barents Sea holds the most undiscovered oil and gas volumes on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. As Aker BP is a fully-fledged E&P company with exploration, development and production activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Barents Sea is an interesting area for Aker BP.
Aker BP is actively seeking new acreage in the Barents Sea and will through 2018 and 2019 participation in several exploration wells. Two of these as operator.
The Barents Sea has its field development challenges related to reduced resource density compared to the North Sea and Norwegian Sea, long distances and lack of existing infrastructure both offshore and onshore. Aker BP believes the Field of the Future concept is well suited for the Barents Sea.
- 15:00 Maritime Broadband Radio - Establishing Wireless Connectivity on Svalbard
Authors: Kjetil Aasebø ( Norwegian Coastal Administration )
Norwegian Coastal Administration is establishing a network of Automatic Identification System (AIS) basestations on Svalbard. In parallel we install Maritime Broadband Radios (MBR) for distribution of the AIS signals into the Norwegian AIS network. The MBR network is an IP based antenna to antenna broadband system, with a potential bandwith of 16,5 Mbit/s.
MBR antennas are installed on all governmental oil recovery vessels and two surveillance aircrafts in Norway. In addition, MBR is used for communication and datatransfer from drones/RPAS owned by the Norwegian Coastal Administration.
The MBR network on Svalbard is primarily establised for emergency response purposes, but will be made available for research and development purposes. The development of the network is done in cooperation with the Governor of Svalbard and Telenor Svalbard AS. The overall aim for the Norwegian Coastal Administration is to establish MBR and AIS coverage all around Svalbard, both for the purpose of monitoring vessels and emergency response.
By establishing the MBR network the NCA creates the possibility to communicate and share data between relevant stakeholders during incidents and regular operations.
- 15:00 Smart Renewable Micro-Grid Control Using Reinforcement Learning
Authors: Phuong Ngo ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Fred Godtliebsen ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.
With the development of renewable energy sources, there is an emerged challenge in the operation and integration of wind and solar powers into the grid since the productions of wind and solar energy are intermittent and depending on weather and environmental conditions. This study proposes an approach to assist with the operation control in microgrid, an integrated system that includes renewable energy sources, loads and batteries. By interacting with the environment and learning from data, the approach provides optimal actions using reinforcement learning that minimize the cost over time while providing enough power for the loads. We propose an algorithm to control the charging and discharging process of the storage battery for a maximum reduction of energy cost from the usage of external power grid. The proposed algorithm is presented by a simulation using Matlab Simscape. The simulation includes a single-phase AC system consisting of a solar power panel, a storage battery and loads from three regular family houses and a pole mounted transformer for voltage conversion from the electricity network as a supplement power supply. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm through robust operations with loads and power provided by the solar panel varying within a day.
- 15:00 Aurora Borealis -- The Intelligent Corridor for Snowtonomous Driving
Authors: Reija Viinanen ( Finnish Transport Agency ); Torgeir Vaa ( Norwegian Public Roads Administration )
Finland and Norway provide a unique Intelligent Corridor for snowtonomous driving and test site for automated driving on public road on the highway E8 from Kolari (Finland) to Tromsø (Norway). The Aurora Borealis corridor and test ecosystem has been designed for verifying and validating new C-ITS solutions and innovations in real arctic winter conditions. It is focusing on automated driving, digital transport infrastructure and intelligent infrastructure asset management. Open road testing and private test site/s with accurate positioning, HD maps and well-instrumented digital infrastructure in Finland and Norway form the backbone of the Aurora Borealis test-ecosystem. Autonomous driving, platoon driving as well, provides great opportunities for the development of safe, efficient and environmental transport system. But there are also potential risks for the infrastructure that road owners and authorities need to prepare for referring to autonomous driving and platooning, especially in regions where seasons of the year change a lot.
Aurora Borealis offer a great test-bed for testing a state of the art technology what comes to transport automation and robotization. At the same time, ecosystem and its´ partners make arctic snowhow visible through scalable solutions and services giving add value for end users e.g. automotive sector (OEMs and Tier-1). Snow is global and already recognized challenge in autonomous driving and can be said that if it works in the Arctic, it works everywhere. Arctic snowhow could pave the way to more automated transport and partly will guarantee that snowy regions and their communities can get benefits of automation as well.
Finland and Norway wish to promote the necessary conversation on how to create harmonization, better regulation and common standards for autonomous driving: joint understanding about short and long-term actions for authorities and infrastructure owners in Europe on the path to more automated transport in all conditions - not only on easy roads with sunny days.
- 15:00 Climate Change and Salmon Aquaculture: Biological Significance and Possible Strategies for Adaptation
Authors: Elisabeth Ytteborg ( Nofima ); Øystein Hermansen ( Nofima ); Trevor Telfer ( University of Stirling ); Bruce McAdam ( University of Stirling ); Solfrid Sætre Hjøllo ( Institute of Marine research ); Lynne Falconer ( University of Stirling )
Average temperature increase in Norway has been 1°C since the 1980s. With climate change, temperatures are expected to continue to increase.
This study involved an evaluation of past, present and potential future sea surface temperature to assess the implications of temperature change on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture in Norway. Global, regional and farm-scale temperature data was used to evaluate likely temperatures in 2050.The temperatures were further linked to the salmon biology and known thresholds linked to its thermal window. Salmon have biological and environmental requirements which must be met to enable effective production. Only a number of countries throughout the world meet the necessary criteria, meaning production areas are limited. Consequently, for long term sustainability, it is vitally important to evaluate the past, present and potential future characteristics of an area that may affect production.
Farmed salmon held in sea cages have limited possibilities to migrate from environmental changes, and environmental effects do directly affect the fish performance. Climate changes are likely to result in frequent periods of elevated sea temperatures, especially in the Southern and Western parts of Norway. Periods with seawater temperatures above the optimum for growth has been shown to result in reduced appetite and growth, increased mortality and disease problems in the intensive farming of Atlantic salmon. Changes in temperature may further affect the site production, the spreading, distribution and severity of diseases and outbreaks, and the carrying capacity of the environment. Increased sea surface temperature due to global warming will therefore have implications for the salmon industry, potentially affecting how, and where salmon are farmed. Even gradual changes will have consequences for the sector and should be considered in national and regional aquaculture plans and strategies.
Assessment of temperature changes across spatial and temporal scales can provide information to support the industry in evaluating opportunities and risks and enable the development of adaptation, or mitigation, strategies where necessary. The results highlight how spatial and temporal assessment of temperature can be useful for the aquaculture industry when considering potential impacts and opportunities from climate change.
This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 677039 (ClimeFish).
- 15:00 Carbon capture utilisation through mass cultivation of marine diatoms for the production of valuable marine compounds.
Authors: Renate Døving Osvik ( UiT - Arctic University of Norway ); Espen Hansen ( UiT - Arctic University of Norway ); Jeanette Hammer Andersen ( UiT - Arctic University of Norway ); Hans Christian Eilertsen ( UiT - Arctic University of Norway )
NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.
Marine diatoms are a major group of marine microalgae. Being the main primary producers in temperate and polar regions, they lay the foundation of all marine life in these highly productive areas1. Because of their nutritional content, and the ability to produce the key omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), diatoms are a great source of marine ingredients for aquaculture. In addition to their nutritional value, the diatoms represent a largely unexplored source of bioactive compounds. UiT – The Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø is collaborating with a ferrosilicon factory in Northern Norway, in a project where marine diatoms are mass cultivated using the factory fumes as the source of CO2. Diatoms are cultivated in large photobioreactors integrated into the factory pipeline, making it possible to operate a sustainable an economically viable production of microalgal biomass, and simultaneously sequester CO2 and NOx gases. The biomass produced contains valuable marine lipids and proteins that are highly needed in the aquaculture industry, and for human consumption2. In addition, these diatoms could harbour useful bioactive components with the potential for commercialization.1.Maria Degerlundand Hans Christian Eilertsen, Estuariesand Coasts, 2010,33, 242-269..2.Matthew Sprague, James RDick, and Douglas RTocher, Scientificreports, 2016,6, 1-9.
- 15:00 Human Health Risk Assessment as a Foundation for Sustainable Urban Development
Authors: Timur Nizamutdinov ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Denis K. Alexeev ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Sustainable Urban Development is impossible without authoritative information on current state of the environment. The problem of atmospheric air pollution is especially relevant for Arctic cities. Climatic and natural features determine the distribution of impurities in the atmosphere largely. One of the main objectives of green technologies in large cities is to save health and well-being of inhabitants. Typically, green technologies are aimed at solving local problems and are not widely used in long-term planning and reorganization of the existing urban space. Usually the efforts being made in that connection are sporadic and local. At the same time, there is a need to assess the planned projects both before the implementation and after. It is necessary to carefully analyze the quality of the environment for the implementation and validation of various decisions for sustainable urban development.
Risk assessment makes it possible to assess not only the effect of single pollutant on the health but an effect of multiple pollutants. Besides, this approach allows us to estimate the effect of air pollution for various age groups.
The main goal of this research study is to estimate the health risk in Arkhangelsk using European criterion for risk assessment (WHO Human Health Risk Assessment Toolkit: Chemical Hazards). Besides, a time-space distribution of health risk in the city was studied. The research work was done using the data of Federal State budgetary institution "Northern Administration for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring». The calculation results show urban areas where green technologies need implementing to reduce the risk value. This approach to the problem of atmospheric air pollution makes it possible to do a long-term assessment of possible negative effect on health of inhabitants and identify the trend towards reduced emissions of pollutants. Based on these projections and analysis of allocation of risk, the priority areas for using «green technologies» in the city of Arkhangelsk was described.
- 15:00 Relating nitrogen status, growth and biofouling of cultivated Saccharina latissima deployed at different times of the year in northern Norway
Authors: Sanna Matsson ( Akvaplan-niva, UiT ); Bodil Bluhm ( UiT ); Anna Metaxas ( Dalhousie University ); Hartvig Christie ( NIVA ); Silje Forbord ( SINTEF/NTNU ); Aleksander Handå ( SINTEF )
Kelp cultivation is gaining interest in Europe. This is due to a general need for ingredients for a number of products such as human foods, fish diets, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biofuel etc., that do not require fresh water, land areas and fertilizers. Kelp cultivation offers a range of ecosystem services such as habitat for young fish, climate regulation, waste treatment, as well as providing an opportunity for sustainable livelihoods for coastal communities. Biofouling on cultivated kelp by epibionts usually has a negative impact on the quality and quantity of kelp biomass. Therefore, kelp is harvested before the onset of fouling organisms. It is desirable to prolong the cultivation season and reduce the level of fouling. We studied the effect of deployment season of cultivated sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, on the internal nutrient status and growth rate of the kelp and seasonal variation in biofouling coverage at 69°N. Kelp were deployed in February, April and May and growth was measured through hole punching, kelp tissue were collected for internal Nitrate-N and C/N, and amount of fouling organisms were analysed. The May deployment coincided with the spring bloom and most of the biomass was lost. Preliminary results from this study show that kelp deployed April experienced a later onset of biofouling and had a higher daily growth rate than kelp deployed in February. Nutrient samples are currently analysed. Our results suggest that deploying kelp later in the season can extend the cultivation season in northern Norway without encountering extensive biofouling.
- 15:00 A Norwegian cultivation program for the sugar kelp Saccharina latissima
Authors: Silje Forbord ( NTNU/SINTEF ); Sanna Matsson ( AkvaPlan-Niva ); Jorunn Skjermo ( SINTEF ); Ole Jacob Broch ( SINTEF ); Morten Alver ( SINTEF ); Torfinn Solvang ( SINTEF ); Kristine Steinhovden ( SINTEF ); Yngvar Olsen ( NTNU ); Aleksander Handå ( SINTEF )
To investigate possible geographical and seasonal differences in growth, biofouling and chemical composition of cultivated Saccharina latissima along the Norwegian coast, ten different locations from south (58,1 °N) to north (69,8 °N) were compared. Fertile S. latissima sporophytes from the ten origins were shipped to the seaweed hatchery at SINTEF where the seedlings were produced simultaneously and under similar environmental conditions. In February 2017, after 6 weeks in the hatchery, the juvenile seedlings were transported to the cultivation sites and deployed at the sea farms on vertical droppers at 1-2 and 8-9 m depth. In the period from April to September 2017, registrations were made every second to fourth week at all locations. Growth measurements (length, width, density, weight), morphological and biofouling studies and collection of biomass for chemical analyses of amino acids, internal nitrate, carbon/nitrogen (CN), carbohydrates and heavy metals. The results showed good growth on most stations from the start. The biomass production was particularly high in Central Norway in the period until June, before large portions of the biomass was lost due to heavy biofouling during summer. In Northern-Norway, growth was highest in late summer and autumn. The content of amino acids, internal nitrate and CN had a clear seasonal variation at all locations, and variations were also found between the cultivation depths as well as between the locations. The results suggest good possibilities for seaweed cultivation along the Norwegian coast, with a prolonged production season north of the Arctic Circle.
- 15:00 Smart integration of PV, EV and Energy Storage into distribution and micro grids.
Authors: Terje Gjengedal ( UiT ); Charu Sharma ( UiT ); Pawan Sharma ( UiT )
NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.
Electric utility companies are concerned with the potential difficulties caused by the large-scale penetration of photovoltaics (PVs) and EVs in the power grid. Various challenges may stem from the intermittent nature of solar PVs and unpredictable EV loads that may cause supply-demand imbalances, such as reverse power flow, malfunctioning network protectors, fluctuating voltage and frequency. These difficulties will especially affect the distribution side of the grid where households and buildings directly connect to PVs and EVs.
The deployment of energy storage systems offers a practical and effective solution to improve the behavior of renewable energy sources from a grid perspective. Among feasible types of energy storage technologies, battery storage systems are widely used and fairly developed. As a result, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are prime targets of research to accompany distributed generation with the goal of enhancing power quality.
The primary purposes in this paper are to examine how integration of PVs, EVs and Energy storage systems can support and improve the grid. In the paper we will present the following topics
- Study of the PV, EV and storage system impact on power system network:
This highlights the searching state of the art technology for PVs, EVs and storage and its impact on power systems. This part of the study may be intended for collecting information and review PV, EV and storage applications on power system networks,such as in terms of interconnection, as well as the methodologies for assessing system impacts.
- Reviewing and developing state of the art of smart micro grids:
In this part we will review the current concept of system integration of PVs,EVs and storage from available literature (IEEE, Cigre, others, also national papers)
- Develop and present a system model and configuration of a micro grid system including PVs, EVS and storage technologies:
Based on the literature review and an actual case develop a simulation model of a smart micro grid system configuration including select models of PVs, EVs and storage systems. Discuss control strategies for using the PVs, EVs and storage in a smart way to improve the system voltage and frequency.
- Performance analysis, testing and data validation:
Present results from the system configuration. Validate the results by developing case studies to find the impact on voltage and frequency.
- 15:00 Standardized production of kelp from development of hatchery tools to the seafarm concept SPOKe
Authors: Torfinn Solvang ( SINTEF Ocean ); Per C. Endresen ( SINTEF Ocean ); Morten O. Alver ( SINTEF Ocean ); Emil S. Bale ( Norconsult AS ); Carina Norvik ( SINTEF Ocean ); Jens Birkevold ( SINTEF Ocean ); Andreas Myskja Lien ( Halogen ); Zsolt Volent ( SINTEF Ocean ); David Kristiansen ( SINTEF Ocean )
The MACROSEA project goal is to facilitate predictable production of high-quality biomass, thereby making significant steps towards industrial macroalgae cultivation in Norway. To accomplish this, new research in all the steps of the cultivation process is needed, from large scale seeding to industrial harvesting. The macroalgae industry is today highly labour intensive and depends mainly on manual tools. Development of new industrial tools and standardization of processes are key in order to build a sustainable industry.
In MACROSEA we have developed mathematical model tools, automation technology and new production concepts. Towing tests with sugar kelp have been conducted both on artificial models and on real plants. The artificial plants were tested both individually and in clusters, while the experiments with real plants were conducted with the kelp still attached to the rope on which it was grown. Different densities and average lengths of the plants were tested. Mechanical properties of sugar kelp were also measured. These experiments give new insight into mechanical and hydrodynamic properties of sugar kelp and the results will be used for development of models for current induced loads. The model will be implemented into a numerical code (FhSim) enabling estimation of hydrodynamic loads on seaweed farms.
For deployment of seedlings on ropes, we have developed a machine that automates both spinning of seedling strings onto plastic cylinders (for hatchery use) and spinning of the same strings with cultivated seedlings onto carrier ropes (for deployment at sea). For large scale sea cultivation, we have developed a concept for Standardized Production of Kelp (SPOKe), a module-based design of circular production units, with a specialized gantry robot for automation of deployment and harvesting operations. The design has been evaluated with regard to production density and light availability for the seaweed, and technology for automated deployment and harvesting is being developed. The FhSim model developed in MACROSEA will be used for assessment of hydrodynamic properties of the SPOKe system.
- 15:00 Copernicus Marine: A "one-stop-shop" data facilitator for marine management and operations
Authors: Vidar S. Lien ( Institute of Marine Research ); Øivind Bergh ( Institute of Marine Research ); Henning Wehde ( Institute of Marine Research )
Copernicus is the European Earth Observation infrastructure. As partners in the Cordinet project (Horizon 2020) we focus on promoting and facilitating Copernicus marine observations, particularly in the High North. Copernicus Marine is a “one-stop-shop” providing freely available operational data on the state of the marine environment for use by marine managers, advisors, and scientists, as well as intermediate and end users in marine businesses and operations. The Copernicus Marine offers operationally updated and state-of-the-art products that are well documented and transparent. The European Commission’s long-term commitment to the Copernicus program offers long-term visibility and stability of the Copernicus Marine products. Furthermore, Copernicus Marine offers a dedicated service desk, in addition to training sessions and workshops. The service addresses four segments:
Coastal and marine environment
Weather, climate, and seasonal forecasting
We highlight three use-cases from our growing user base, that showcase the use of Copernicus Marine data to the benefit of both local communities and society at large, as well as businesses, in the Arctic.
- 15:00 Citizen Science for Better Management: Lessons Learned from Three Norwegian Beach Litter Data Sets
Authors: Jannike Falk-Andersson ( SALT Lofoten ); Boris Woody Berkhout ( University of Leicester ); Tenaw Gedefaw Abate ( Norut )
Increased plastic consumption and poor waste management have resulted in litter representing an ever-increasing threat to the marine environment. To identify sources and evaluate mitigation measures, beach litter has been monitored. Using data from two citizen science protocols (CSPs) and OSPAR monitoring of Norwegian beaches, this study 1) identifies the most abundant litter items, 2) compares OSPAR to citizen science data, and 3) examines how to improve the management relevance of beach litter data. The dominant litter types were; food and drink- and fishery related items, and unidentifiable plastic pieces. Data from CSPs are consistent with OSPAR data in abundance and diversity, although few OSPAR beaches limits verification of CSP data. In contrast to OSPAR, the CSPs estimates the weight of the litter. CSPs lack important variables which could explain why some litter types are abundant in some particular areas. The latter could be improved by recording GPS positions.
Tuesday 22nd January 2019
15:00 - 18:00