- 16:00 Autonomous Institution of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug -- Ugra, Russia: «V.I.Shpilman Research and Analytical Centre
for the Rational Use of the Subsoil»
Authors: Petr Stulov ( V.I.Shpilman Research and Analytical Centre for the Rational Use of the Subsoil )
- 16:00 FRESHWATER PEARL MUSSEL (MARGARITIFERA MARGARITIFERA L.) AND ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L.): RELATIONSHIPS IN THE PARASIT-HOST SYSTEM UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH
Authors: Kseniia Bystrova ( IB KarRC RAS ); Svetlana Murzina ( IB KarRC RAS ); Nina Nemova ( IB KarRC RAS ); Evgeniy Ieshko ( IB KarRC RAS )
Freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera L. and fish of Salmo genus are considered as one of the interrelated and significant populations of mollusk species and fish fauna of freshwater systems of northern latitudes, which determine the uniqueness and specificity of these ecosystems. In the life cycle the larvae of freshwater pearl mussel which is called “glochidia” is a parasite of gills of a specific host which is usually young Atlantic salmon but in some cases other representatives of salmon fish such as brown trout and pink salmon may also play this role. There are two key “points” at the larval stage which are fixing on the host tissues and formation of full-fledged cysts by the host tissues. The physiological state of the host and the environmental factors complex determine the success of these processes. Temperature is the most critical abiotic factor among all environmental factors. Accordingly, current climate change has directly or indirectly the greatest effect, which affects ecosystems of the North including relationships in the investigated parasite-host system, can adjust survival and maturation rate of glochidia during its parasitation on intermediate hosts in reproduction efficiency and maintaining the number of pearl mussels in the northern rivers. The northern regions of Russia such as Karelia are the only areas where natural populations of mollusks preserved, which were previously considered as target species. Histological, morphological and biochemical mechanisms of the juvenile Atlantic salmon reaction to the invasion of the freshwater pearl mussel glochidia in the River Syuskyuyanjoki (Baltic Sea basin) in the autumn when glochidia become anchored and encysted were studied. We had the opportunity to compare the obtained data with previously obtained results on the study of young Atlantic salmon from the River Vuokinjoki (White Sea basin). The first results on species, seasonal and latitudinal features of histological and biochemical reactions of juvenile salmon fish to infection, encystation and metamorphosis of glochidia were obtained. The results of the study are fundamental, but it play important role in creating programs for freshwater pearl mussel conservation and for restoring its lost colonies, and also they are helpful for better understanding the role of salmon fishes in maintaining their sustainability. This work was carried out using classical methods of histological analysis and biochemical analysis of lipids using advanced equipment of the Centre of collective usage of the Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
- 16:00 A new functional product: fish paste enriched by Atlantic cod liver oil polyunsaturated fatty acids
Authors: Andrei Glukharev ( Murmansk State Technical University ); Lyudmila Kuranova ( Murmansk State Technical University ); Vladimir Grokhovsky ( Murmansk State Technical University ); Vasiliy Volchenko ( Murmansk State Technical University )
At the present time, people's awareness of the link between health and proper nutrition makes the creation and production of functional foods especially important. Functional foods have high nutritional, dietary and therapeutic properties. The aim of functional foods is to balance the diet of a modern person.
One of the actual and valuable fish for the production of functional food is cod, harvested in the northern Arctic seas. Offal - gonads (caviar and milt) and liver due to their high content of essential amino acids and biologically active ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are valuable ingredients for creating new functional foods.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a new functional product - fish pate with the addition of gonads and Atlantic cod liver oil.
Fish pate with the addition of gonad and cod liver oil was obtained by traditional technology. The formulation development has been carried out using experiment design theory. The sensory, physical, chemical (including amino acids and fatty acids composition), microbiological, rheological, and functional characteristics have been determined. The methods of Kjeldahl, Soxhlet, HPLC; rheological methods have been used. Statistical data processing has been carried out using Oakdale Datafit 9.
The influence of technological parameters (the number and ratio of the main components) on the properties of the paste is analyzed. The optimal prescription compositions of fish pate with a given structure and nutritional properties were obtained. The protein content has been proved to reaches 14 %, while lipid content is 23 %. Analysis of the amino acid composition of the protein and fatty acid composition of lipids shows a high content of essential amino acids and ω-3 PUFA.
Thus, research has established the effect of the ratio of milt, liver and caviar of cod in the formulation of canned paste on the quality level, as well as the structural and mechanical properties of the finished product. The optimal formulation of canned paste from gonads of cod and fish oil was determined, and optimal samples were investigated for a number of indicators - chemical and physico-chemical. A high-quality paste with the addition of caviar, milt and cod liver oil with high nutritional value and functional properties was developed and produced.
- 16:00 Removing microplastic particles from samples with high organic matter content: a countrywide investigation of sewage sludge produced across Norway
Authors: Amy Lusher ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) ); Rachel Hurley ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) ); Marianne Olsen ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) ); Christian Vogelsang ( Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) )
Developing methods to investigate the presence of microplastics in the aquatic environment began later than those for the marine environment. The extraction of microplastics from complex matrices rich in organic matter, such as sludge samples, are inefficient particularly for the micro-scale size range and the procedures are ineffective. Furthermore, the lack of standardized methods for sampling and analysis complicates the comparison between the relatively few sludge studies available worldwide.
NIVA were given the task to develop appropriate methods to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise microplastic or microparticles in sewage sludge. Samples were collected from various wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Norway, applying different wastewater and sludge treatment technologies and compare the results. WWTPs were selected to cover the three-main domestic WWTP categories in Norway and the main applied sludge treatment processes. As the general sludge characteristics are very dependent on the applied technologies, both for wastewater and sludge treatment, it was first necessary to identify the most appropriate and time-effective methods for analyzing collected samples. Fenton’s reagent was used to remove organic matter and density separations were employed to extract microplastics from sludge samples. Results will be discussed under the framework of method development and inter-site comparisons. Plastics were found in all ten sludge samples investigated from eight WWTPs. The overall average plastic abundance was 6,077 particles kg-1 (d.w.) (1,701 – 19,837) or 1,176,889 particles m-3 (470,270 – 3,394,274). Based on the average microplastic abundance and the present application of sewage sludge in Norway, it was estimated that over 500 billion microplastics are released into the environment via sewage sludge application each year, to agricultural soils, green areas and soil producers. This likely represents a significant source of microplastics to terrestrial and eventually in marine systems.
- 16:00 Lipids of the arctic fish daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) during polar night
Authors: Svetlana Pekkoeva ( IB KarRC RAS ); Svetlana Murzina ( IB KarRC RAS ); Zinaida Nefedova ( IB KarRC RAS ); Stig Falk-Petersen ( Akvaplan-niva AS ); Jørgen Berge ( The Arctic University of Norway ); Ole Jorgen Lønne ( The University Centre in Svalbard ); Nina Nemova ( IB KarRC RAS )
Leptoclinus maculatus (Fries, 1838), is a common demersal fish in the Arctic. Postlarvae are pelagic during three years when gradually transit to the bottom, changing mode of life and feeding patterns - juveniles are demersal like adults. Its postlarvae store significant amounts of lipids in the muscles and especially in the special organ – «lipid sac» as an adaptive strategy (energetic, metabolic, buoyancy control functions) to growth and development in the Arctic. Recent studies have revealed high biological activity in the Arctic marine ecosystems during the polar night (Berge et al., 2015). It is therefore of interest to study lipid and fatty acid (FA) profile of muscles and the “lipid sac” of the daubed shanny (L1-L5 stages of development) in relation to food availability during a time of year with low levels of ambient light. The research was carried out using the Equipment Sharing Centre of the KarRC RAS. The level of triacylglycerols in the muscles of postlarval daubed shanny increases from pelagic postlarvae L1 stage to demersal juvenile L5 in the polar night. It was shown that the level of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine and its lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin) increases in lipid sac to L4* stage, that may be related to the onset of resorption of the lipid sac. Among monounsaturated FA (MUFA) 18:1n-9 FA was abundant in postlarvae L1 stage probably due to feeding on phytoplankton (mostly heterotrophic dinoflagellates). High level of MUFA 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-11 – biomarkers of copepods Calanus, was shown in the muscles and lipid sac of the daubed shanny from L2 stage of development (especially in triacylglycerols) that pointed to changing the type of feeding from herbivore to carnivorous. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) predominated in phospholipids, due to FA of n-3 family, especially 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3. The results of this study show significant role of energetic lipids (triacylglycerols with MUFA) as source of energy that can be used of necessity. Variations in the content of structural lipids, PUFA are essential for supporting of normal functioning of membranes in low temperatures. The results of the study demonstrate the lipid specificity of postlarval daubed shanny, determining their functional significance, and reflect trophic relationship, physiological fitness of organism during ontogeny in the polar night. The research was made in frame of the budgetary theme № 0221-2017-0050, supported by RFBR № 17-04-00466, the Norwegian Research Council projects «Timing of ecological processes in Spitsbergen fjords» (ES504895).
- 16:00 RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AND AQUATIC TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM COMPONENTS
IN THE ZONE OF WATER INFLUENCE OF THE WESTERN GRENFJORD GLACIER
Authors: Nikita Meshcheriakov ( Murmansk marine biological institute ); Irina Usyagina ( Murmansk marine biological institute ); Olga Belkina ( Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden and Institute )
The purpose of this work is to determine content of anthropogenic and natural isotopes in elements of aquatic and terrestrial environments of the Svalbard archipelago, to estimate probability of man-made isotopes entry into the marine environment. Samples of water, soil and vegetation (bryophytes) were taken and analyzed for radionuclide content to accomplish this goal.
- 16:00 The UK Polar Network: Engaging the next generation of polar scientists
Authors: Chelsey Baker ( UK Polar Network/ National Oceanography Centre ); Anna Belcher ( UK Polar Network ); Joe Cook ( UK Polar Network ); Archana Dayal ( UK Polar Network ); Kyle Mayers ( UK Polar Network ); Sammie Buzzard ( UK Polar Network ); Holly Jenkins ( UK Polar Network ); Becky Hopkins ( UK Polar Network ); Jo Ainsworth ( UK Polar Network ); Vicky Fowler ( UK Polar Network ); Sarah Breimann ( UK Polar Network ); Niall Gandy ( UK Polar Network ); Emma Lewington ( UK Polar Network ); Emma Pearce ( UK Polar Network ); Tracey Dornan ( UK Polar Network ); Nadia Mamontova ( UK Polar Network ); Saule Akhmetkaliyeva ( UK Polar Network ); Robynne Nowicki ( UK Polar Network ); Georgia Robson ( UK Polar Network ); Zoe Roseby ( UK Polar Network ); Sasha Montelli ( UK Polar Network ); Patrizia Duda ( UK Polar Network )
The UK Polar Network (UKPN) was established in April 2007 as part of the 2007 – 2009 International Polar Year (IPY), and is the UK’s national committee for the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS). Currently having over 500 members, we are the key centre representing the UK’s early career polar scientists, and an influential organisation in the frontier of polar science within the nation’s polar-oriented community. As an entirely voluntary group, we organise career development events for early career scientists in addition to running education and outreach activities to enthuse and inspire young people about the polar regions. We have recently launched a new scheme to educate school children called Polar Pen Pals in which scientists answer their questions about the Polar regions.
Recently, we have been busy with a constant series of meetings, workshops, and outreach events that raise our profile within the UK. We provide a voice for early-career scientists in multiple national committees (e.g. UK Arctic and Antarctic Partnership and UK National Committee for Antarctic Research), as well as being an extremely active and social hub at various workshops, conferences, and events throughout the UK. The UKPN works best in collaboration with other organisations, and have partnered with the likes of the International Polar Foundation (IPF), British Antarctic Survey, and the Software Sustainability Institute to provide successful events and workshops for our members. We are currently actively involved in UK-Russia early career collaboration events, such as the interdisciplinary field course ARCTIS2019 to be hosted by APECS Russia and the UKPN in the Murmansk Region, Russia.
The UKPN is here to support you as an early career scientist, so get involved and join our network to participate in career development workshops and fun outreach events!
- 16:00 Assessing plastic debris in aquatic food webs: what we know about uptake and trophic transfer
Authors: Justine Ammendolia ( Memorial University of Newfoundland ); Jennifer Provencher ( Environment and Climate Change Canada ); Chelsea Rochman ( University of Toronto ); Mark Mallory ( Acadia University )
Plastic pollution is now recognized as a global environmental issue that can affect the health of biota and ecosystems. Now that a growing number of species and taxa are known to ingest a broad size-range and diverse types of plastics, and retain plastics in their guts, there is an increase in questions relating to the movement of plastics through food webs, and how biota may directly and indirectly ingest plastics. Here, we synthesize what is known from the published, peer-reviewed literature about plastic ingestion by animals and identify critical gaps in our knowledge. We systematically reviewed and examined the literature for studies that reported ingested plastics in marine and freshwater biota at a global scale. Our objective was to inform discussions and future studies regarding what we know about plastic ingestion and fate in food webs. We assessed what regions, ecosystems and food webs have been studied to date, and whether potential information may already be available to assess if trophic transfer of plastics may be occurring. We found 160 relevant publications through 2016. Most studies were concentrated in specific regions and in specific ecosystem types, with freshwater studies being the most limited. Moreover, most studies examined one species at a time with only a handful of regions with multiple taxa examined across multiple studies. Some regions have no published data on plastic ingestion to date. Although some studies have measured ingestion in multiple species across trophic levels, few have tested the hypothesis that plastics are transferred across trophic levels. Moreover, none have addressed questions related to biomagnification. While our review suggests that numerous papers have recorded the ingestion of plastics by biota across many trophic levels, habitats and geographic regions, many questions regarding how or whether biota retain, bioaccumulate, biomagnify and trophically-transfer plastics still need to be addressed.
- 16:00 Human Security in the Arctic : From Canadian Rangers to Climate Change
Authors: Magali Vullierme ( CEARC )
My PhD research focuses on identifying elements that can create an enabling environment for the protection of human security in Canada's Arctic communities.
This study focuses on Nunavik, whose communities suffer from malaise and from many risks related to the concept of human security. To determine whether this concept is applied in Canadian Arctic domestic policy, this research analyzes relational dynamics within Canadian Ranger patrols. Canadian Rangers’ patrols are mainly composed of indigenous under the responsibility of non-indigenous instructors. This exploratory research results of an analysis of a corpus of twenty-one interviews and field observations conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Quebec.
Data interpretation revealed three main results. First of all, balanced relationships exist between indigenous and instructors of a same patrol. This balance results from the instructors’ willingness to work with indigenous culture, from their open-mindedness and their humility. It also results from the adaptation of Canadian Armed Forces and of their trainings to indigenous cultures. Then, this balance is not detrimental to indigenous culture. On the contrary, elements of instructors’ assimilation – albeit limited – were identified in the data analysis (especially the relationship to time). In addition, Inuit communities strongly support these patrols which train them for Search and Rescue operations on land. Finally, these patrols help strengthening several dimensions of human security in Arctic communities. For instance, by working on personal development and prevention with the youths, the program impacts on personal security – fight against suicide; by giving structure and funding to communities, patrols help the intergenerational transmission of Inuit knowledge and culture (including Inuktitut) – and strengthen community security.
To conclude, the strengthening of human security in Canadian Arctic communities results from a three-step process based on balanced relationships dynamics and on support provided by these communities to these patrols.
Using the same inductive exploratory methodology, my post-doctoral research aims at understanding the risks faced by communities and related to permafrost thaw. Today, these communities are facing the acceleration of climate change, which poses several risks related to human security. In order to understand better consequences of permafrost thaw on a broad scale, it is first necessary to understand how it affects these communities. How is permafrost thaw affecting Arctic communities on a daily basis? What are the solutions – if any – to mitigate these risks?
- 16:00 The Impact of Marine Plastic on the Arctic Seas and their Ecosystem Services
Authors: Nicola Beaumont ( Plymouth Marine Lab ); Jannike Falk-Andersson ( SALT ); Tara Hooper ( Plymouth Marine Lab ); Tenaw Abate ( NORUT ); CLAUDIA HALSBAND ( NIVA )
This paper reviews the literature researching the impact of marine plastics on the Arctic environment, demonstrating a significant bias in the research towards birds and plastic abundance. A novel translation of these ecological impacts into ecosystem service impacts enables the understanding of not only the ecological impacts, but also the impacts on ecosystem service provision and in turn human wellbeing. The results evidenced a decline in ecosystem service provision, including a decline in the capacity for food provision, raw materials, recreational, bequest and existence values, and symbolic and spiritual benefits. It was also found that the plastics had a notable negative impact on the supporting services which underpin the provision of all benefits.
- 16:00 Arctic -- less pristine than we would wish. Atmospheric studies providing evidence for changing regimes in the Arctic pollution patterns.
Authors: Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Paulina Pakszys ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
For decades, the Arctic has been considered as a pristine environment with limited anthropogenic influence. However, today we know that the Arctic environment is continuously contaminated by pollutants transported over large distances from lower latitude sources.
Over the past 30 years, extensive international studies were conducted in the Arctic to elucidate the transport pathways into the Arctic. Due to the lack of significant local anthropogenic aerosol sources, it is aerosols and pollution transported to the Arctic through atmospheric circulation that have a tremendous impact on the environment of this extremely sensitive area, mainly through influencing the Arctic surface radiation budget.
Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences has over 30 years of experience in continuous studies in the Arctic, majority of which have been made using r/v Oceania. Our long-term investigations show that atmospheric aerosols influence the Arctic radiation budget during entire year, however, there are certain seasons which this influence is most pronounced. For decades it was spring, with its Arctic Haze phenomenon, that was considered as the most influencing the Arctic environment.
We have found evidence that the recent outbreaks of biomass burning in summer, and/or volcano eruptions may have larger impact on the radiation budget of the Arctic than the Arctic Haze.
- 16:00 Are you interested in widening your knowledge about the Arctic?
Authors: Izabela Kotynska-Zielinska ( TodayWeHave ); Anna Pradzinska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Jan Marcin Weslawski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
Climate changes have a severe impact on every part of the world. They disrupt human lives in every way, through changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, more extreme weather events, and the cost of these changes will be even higher in the future. Why is the Arctic an important issue in the subject of climate changes? The academic answer would be: the Arctic amplification, while young people would rather prefer to hear the full story, i.e. that melting sea ice is impacting the Arctic people and wildlife. This phenomenon has a great impact on the changes of climate in every part of the globe, through e.g. extreme weather events.
Do people realize it? Do young people care? And how much, if at all are they interested in the Arctic issues and thus the climate change? We decided to ask this question in a number of schools in a region of Gdansk, Poland, a large, urban area with school children exposed to the outside world on a regular basis.
We realize that today Polish school curriculum has very little room for discussing the Arctic issues, and thus Polish young learners do not have a chance to learn much about it in schools. Yet, when it comes to showing some interest the results are rather stunning.
The question: Are you interested in widening your knowledge about the Arctic? asked to kids at all four levels of education yielded following responses:
In the age group 7 – 9, 71% kids gave a positive answer (92% girls and 55% boys), in the age group 13 - 14, 53% expressed interest (52% girls and 54% boys), in the age group 14 – 15, 30% kids expressed interest (56% girls and 11% boys), and finally, in the age group 18 – 20, only 17% kids were interested in widening their knowledge about the Arctic, including 14% girls and 20% boys.
This is quite disturbing that school kids loose interest with age, reaching very small level of interest at the age of 18-20. Further analyses, with more data are being carried out.
- 16:00 Interdisciplinary studies on the relevance of Arctic research among societies that are rooted in the tradition, history and geographical settings.
Authors: Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Jan Marcin Weslawski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Michal Luszczuk ( UMCS )
Representatives of natural sciences, in the era of rapidly growing number of projects and plans for the polar research, are encouraged more than ever before to reflect upon the significance and relevance of the scientific research in the Arctic for the wider society. This is linked with the other question, namely, how the polar research is perceived and understood by the community, by decision makers, by media and opinion trendsetters.
The perception of polar issues by e.g. Poles is a complicated matter. Poles explored polar regions of Siberia in XIX century and participated in the Belgica Antarctic expedition in XIX century. Polish general public was very proud of our research expeditions to the Arctic before the WWII and they were widely advertised and promoted, also in schools.
We realize that the Arctic has a wide range of global connections and thus the region is linked to systems and processes that reach far beyond the Arctic Circle. A good level of understanding of these interconnections, with respect to different geographical (local, regional, global), and time scales, is necessary in order to equip decision-makers and stake-holders with the necessary knowledge to address current and future challenges for achieving sustainable Arctic futures.
To stimulate discussion about these topics we examined the relevance of Arctic research among different European countries and particular societies that are rooted in the tradition, history and geographical settings we organized a number of activities, from a conference and a workshop, to school questionnaires, which were devoted to: (1) presentation and discussion of state of art of interdisciplinary scientific knowledge about social relevance of Arctic research; (2) brain-storming new ideas, that through excellent studies and well-designed outreach could boost the significance of Arctic interdisciplinary research in different parts of the world; (3) developing a network of institutions interested in establishing closer cooperation on societal relevance of Arctic interdisciplinary research.
We are currently analysing different aspects of our activities however, the very first observations show that e.g. Polish school kids lose their interest in the Arctic issues with age. This is a piece of information which is very relevant for people who prepare our school curriculum.
- 16:00 The legal framework of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Arctic Ocean under UNCLOS
Authors: Yunjin Kim ( Graduate School of International Studies, Busan National University )
According to the target of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), at least 10% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are to be conserved by 2020. Considering the fact that a large portion of the Arctic Ocean lies in the areas beyond national jurisdiction and only 1.55% of the Arctic marine areas are protected, promoting the establishment of MPAs in the high seas implies that more effort is needed from all parties to expand the areas having comprehensive ecological approaches and networks toward vulnerable ecosystems.
However, establishing MPAs in the areas beyond national jurisdiction contains the issues of absences or limitations of the current UNCLOS legal basis. The present accepted legal framework for MPAs in the Arctic Ocean is likely to be a nation-led approach under the authority of the Arctic Council and its working groups (e.g PAME, CAFF) making it limited to the EEZ of the Arctic coastal states.
This analysis poses the questions; (1) what are the limits of MPAs establishment in the Arctic high sea under UNCLOS? (2) what type of strategies can be suggested to build a multilateral legal framework among the Arctic governance state actors including indigenous communities and non-Arctic participants? The paper will examine these issues based on current UN conventions, plans, and assessments of the Arctic Council’s working groups while giving a room for further consideration of a regional agreement in the future.
- 16:00 Risk Assessment of Operation and Maintenance of Wind Turbines in the Arctic
Authors: Albara Mustafa ( The Arctic University of Norway UiT ); Abbas Barabadi ( The Arctic University of Norway UiT )
There is a number of risks associated with wind turbines installed in cold climate regions, most of these risks are related to ice accumulation on the wind turbine structure. One of the main risks is ice thrown off a wind turbine’s rotor during its operation, thrown ice fragments represent a danger to operators, maintenance workers, and to people passing by the wind turbine in case it is installed near public areas. Moreover, the load of accumulated ice affects the performance of the wind turbine and leads to power loss, imbalances and fatigue. Furthermore, Ice can destroy the ground foundation of the wind turbine in case liquid water leaked into the cracks in the foundation and formed ice. The author applied the risk assessment tools and commands, starting with identifying the hazards, followed by determining the probability of each hazard and the consequences of such hazard if it takes place, which will lead to evaluating the risk. In addition, the review considers the techniques and technologies used to monitor and mitigate ice accretion on wind turbines. Based on this literature review, future work can be carried out in order to examine more related hazards to cold climate regions, define a mathematical model for the probability and consequence of risks and determine the most feasible risk control measures to mitigate these risks.
Keywords: Risk Assessment, Wind Turbines in the Arctic, Hazard Identification, Risk Evaluation, Risk Control.
- 16:00 The invasion of an alien crab Chionoecetes opilio (Decapoda, Brachyura) in the Kara Sea.
Authors: Anna Zalota ( Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS ); Vassily Spiridonov ( Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS ); Olga Zimina ( Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Murmansk (MMBI) )
Climate change and shrinking of sea ice cover in the Arctic will expand the shipping capacity of the Northern Sea Route. This increases the chances of introducing alien species by both higher propagule pressure (increased traffic) and creating suitable conditions (longer period of open water). The invasion of an alien crab Chionoecetes opilio into the Kara Sea is an example of such effect. Studying it can shed light on how pristine Arctic ecosystems of the Siberian shelf seas react to a new predatory invader, and whether this crab is capable of achieving large size and numbers in low productivity seas.
Snow crab opilio entered the Kara Sea from the Barents Sea where it is already well established and commercially harvested. Its invasion, in late 2000s, has coincided with lower concentration of ice in the western Kara Sea in spring – early summer, which gave crabs’ larvae enough time to mature and settle. They expanded throughout the western part of the sea and achieved high concentrations (0.55 crabs/m2, near the Kara Gates Strait, 2016). We collected data by both trawling and underwater towed video module since 2014. During this time we observed all size groups within crabs’ population. The crabs successfully settle and grow in the western Kara shelf. The size groups differ from those described in the literature due to differences in environmental conditions and possibly two settling events: incoming larvae from the Barents Sea and locally produced in the Kara Sea.
Ovigerous females with well developed eggs have been found since 2016. The eastern bays of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago could be a nursery for the younglings of the invader. The largest crab found up to date was near the Kara Gate Strait and measured 116 mm in carapace width. This specimen could have walked in from the Barents Sea, and does not reflect on the capability of the Kara Sea to provide for the local population to achieve commercial size. Although, such possibility cannot be excluded and could lead to new commercial fishing opportunities in previously unharvested sea. Fishing of alien species should be used to control its expansion and number in marine protected areas such as the national park “Russian Arctic” in the north of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and Franz Josef Land.
The research was conducted with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 18-05-70114.
- 16:00 T-MOSAiC: A land-based Arctic Circumpolar project
Authors: Diogo Folhas ( Centro de Química Estrutural - Instituto Superior Técnico - University of Lisbon ); João Canário ( Centro de Química Estrutural - Instituto Superior Técnico - University of Lisbon ); Warwick Vincent ( Centre d’études nordiques (CEN) & Département de biologie, Laval University ); Taneil Uttal ( NOAA ); Maribeth Murray ( University of Calgary ); Gonçalo Vieira ( IGOT - Centro de Estudos Geográficos - Universidade de Lisboa ); Julia Boike ( AWI )
The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) international project Terrestrial Multidisciplinary distributed Observatories for the Study of Arctic Connections (T-MOSAiC) aims to answer the following question: What are the implications of changing sea ice, oceanography and climate of the Arctic Ocean for the surrounding land-based geosystems, ecosystems and human systems? This project will connect studies taking place across the Arctic and across disciplines in order to generate new insights into northern geosystems, ecosystems and human systems. Potential research activities within T-MOSAiC include estimating past changes in Arctic geodiversity and biodiversity, measuring current change and predicting future changes, measurement and modelling of permafrost, snow and glacier mass balance across different scales, projections of the future state of the Arctic cryosphere, and analyses of the effects of changing climate on human communities, for example the impacts of permafrost thaw on ecosystem services such as drinking water, food security, engineered infrastructure.
Implementation activities will include ongoing environmental measurements, such as those made by existing networks such as Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW), International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere’ (IASOA), the Permafrost Carbon Network as well as measurements of land-based and coastal ecological/biological state and process variables and the development of conceptual models relating the vulnerability of northern infrastructure and ecosystems to sea-ice and climate change. T-MOSAiC will also use transect analyses in the terrestrial environment that could provide (coast to continental interior, from high to lower latitudes, East-West gradients) to better understand the terrestrial extent of impacts caused by changes. Collaboration with other groups and programs are welcome. Further information including contact addresses are given on the T-MOSAiC website: www.T-MOSAiC.org.
- 16:00 Dominant species and communities' mapping: are communities with the same dominant really similar in different seas?
Authors: Alexandra Chava ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Vadim Mokievsky ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Alexey Udalov ( P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology ); Valentin Kokarev ( Nord University )
The dominance of one particular species (or species of one genera) in the geographically remote communities was thoroughly described by Gunnar Thorson (Thorson, 1957) in his theory of parallel communities. While studying soft-bottom macrobenthic associations of Russian Arctic we discovered a somewhat similar pattern. А bivalve protobranchian mollusc Portlandia arctica (Gray, 1824),found everywhere from the White sea to Chukotka, is dominant in three locations whose abiotic traits are extremely different: the Babje More bay and Velikaya Salma strait in the west part of the White Sea and bays of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago (the Kara Sea). Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that for these locations there are three separate communities having very little in common. Beside P. arcticaitself, two more bivalves (Macoma calcarea, Mya truncata), and three polychaete species (Micronephtys minuta, Terebellides stroemi, Maldane sarsi) were found in all the study sites. Apart from that the three communitites differ in most ecological characteristics such as average biomass or species composition, richness and diversity.
Velikaya Salma strait is the the richest in species (38±3 species per station) and the most diverse one. Typical boreal species - polychaetes Myriochele oculataand Nephtys ciliata, bivalves Elliptica ellipticaand Yoldia hyperborea- dominate the study site along with P.arctica. In Novaya Zemlya bays Portlandia community mostly consists of high-arctic species with brittle star Ophiopleura borealis, bivalve Bathyarca glacialis and sipunculid worm Golfingia margaritacea being dominant together with P.arctica. The bays and Salma have one dominant species in common – a bivalve Ennucula tenuis. Babje More is an isolated shallow bay, connected to the sea by a couple of narrow straits. Its benthic fauna is impoverished allegedly due to the sesonal depletion of oxygen in near-bottom layer. The figures for the species richness are the lowest in this location (14±2 species per station). It appears to be the habitat close to the upper depth limit for P.arctica, with polychaetes Alitta virens, Prionospio cirrifera and bivalves Serripes groenlandicus, Macoma calcarea dominating alongside with Portlandia.
Such a big difference between communities with one “pervasive” dominant species, raises an important zoogeographical question: can we distinguish a unified Portlandia arctica community on a large geographic scale? And if so, what traits apart from faunal composition can we rely on?
Thorson, G. (1957). Bottom communities (sublittoral or shallow shelf). Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology, 1, 461-534.
- 16:00 Behavioral response of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) Larvae Exposed to the Water-Soluble Fraction of Crude Oil at Two Different Temperatures
Authors: Julia Gossa ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Morgan Lizabeth Bender ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Jennifer Laurent ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Ragnar Teisrud ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Connie Jones ( University of Tromsø (UiT) ); Carole Di Poi ( IFREMER ); Marianne Frantzen ( Akvaplan Niva ); Bjørn Henrik Hansen ( SINTEF ); James Meador ( NOAA ); Jasmine Nahrgang ( University of Tromsø (UiT) )
The Arctic has experienced rapid climatic changes within the past years, accompanied by an increase in temperature; leading to multi-year sea ice loss and retreat. These changes open new possibilities for industrial development in the high North, thereby also enhancing the risk of an accidental oil spill. Early life stages (ELS) of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), a keystone species in the Arctic marine environment, remain in the upper water layer during their embryonic and larval development and could thus be at risk of exposure to spilled crude oil and to warming surface waters. In a multifactorial experiment, polar cod ELS were exposed to extremely low concentrations (Σ44 PAHs in the water were below 250 ng L-1) of the crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF), at two different temperatures (0 and 3 degrees °C). The water-soluble fraction from an oiled gravel column was used to mimic the exposure of positively buoyant eggs and larvae under the sea-ice with a decrease over time in water-soluble oil components. The behavioral response of polar cod larvae was assessed by analyzing feeding success and locomotor activity during and after light stimuli (Photomotor response; PMR) to detect sublethal treatment effects of apparently healthy larvae. Exposure to the WSF of crude oil led to a dose-dependent decrease of feeding success. PMR assays showed trends of an alteration of locomotor activity of exposed larvae and higher locomotor activity levels during light phases. The reduced feeding success in combination with altered swimming behavior after exposure to the toxic crude oil WSF may severely impact prey capture abilities and would likely decrease the probability of survival to adulthood.
- 16:00 Interannual variability of annual runoff volume of dissolved solids of the Pechora River.
Authors: Alla Govor ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Denis K. Alexeev ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Arctic ecosystems were considered intact for many years. However, due to the planning of new economic activities in their catchment water areas, as well as because of global changes in the environment, the Arctic ecosystems are under increasing external impact. Development of oil, oil and gas processing and coal mining industries in the basin of the Pechora River predetermines the possibility of contamination of wide complex of organic and inorganic pollutants. Special danger to freshwater ecosystems of the Russian Arctic is entering into the aquatic environment of oil and petroleum products, because due to the low temperature the rate of oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons is extremely low.
The role of chemical runoff into seas of the Arctic basin from the territory of Russia is extremely high. One of the most important factors in the formation of the hydrochemical regime of lower reach rivers, estuaries and coastal parts of marine waters is the inflow of dissolved solids. Transboundary transfer of pollutants by transit rivers from the territories adjacent to the Arctic is the one of the main ways of entering of pollutants to the Russian Arctic. The completeness and reliability of the assessment of the transport of chemicals from the watersheds of the land to the mouths of rivers and coastal zones of the Arctic seas is largely determined by the reliability of information on the areas of river basins and water runoff, including its long-term and seasonal variability.
The main goal of research was carried out to estimate annual runoff volume of chemicals in Pechora River. The research was done on the basis of data of the Northern Interregional Territorial Department of the Federal Service of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. Observation was made on hydrologic monitoring stations during the period from 2008 to 2012: the Pechora River – village Oksino (38 km above Naryan-Mar), the Pechora River – Naryan-Mar (village Bondarka). The program of observations included hydrological and hydrochemical parameters. The water quality was evaluated by 17 parameters, including magnesium, chlorine, sulfate, mineralization, sodium, potassium, calcium, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), petroleum hydrocarbons, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphates, silicon, iron, copper, zinc, oxygen. The main attention in assessing the annual runoff volume was given to nutrients, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.
- 16:00 Riverine and glacial influence on infaunal benthic communities in
Authors: Charlotte Pedersen Ugelstad ( University of Tromsø ); Maeve McGovern ( University of Tromsø and NIVA ); Bodil Bluhm ( University of Tromsø ); Paul Renaud ( Akvaplan- niva and University Centre of Svalbard ); Amanda Poste ( NIVA )
Benthic community composition is determined by a variety of abiotic factors, which vary on regional and local scales. For instance, in Svalbard fjords, land-based glacier, tidal glaciers and rivers bring heavy loads of sediments and freshwater to the inner basins, in contrast to the deep saline water in the open fjord. Terrestrial run-off from a warming Arctic landscape delivers freshwater and inorganic sediments (and associated nutrients and organic matter) to coastal areas. These inputs are expected to increase in the future, but such implications for local benthic community structure and functioning have rarely been studied.
Soft-bottom macrofauna samples were collected in August 2018 using a Van-Veen grab along inner to outer fjord transects in Billefjord, Tempelfjord and Adventfjord, as well as several nearshore river estuary and shallow control stations. Samples were collected from a total of 30 stations and community composition will be analyzed in relation to environmental factors, including temperature, salinity, bottom water and sediment chlorophyll a, and stable C and N isotope values of particulate organic matter. Sediment color, pH, temperature and redox potential (Eh) were measured in field. Preliminary results show that all river-estuary stations in Tempelfjord had similar community composition, dominated by polychaetes and bivalves, though one station, in the estuary for the deGeerelva river flowing into Tempelfjord, had large amounts of terrestrial material and few bivalves. An increase in taxonomic and functional diversity from the inner to the outer part of the fjords is expected.
- 16:00 State of the new Arctic- as observed in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard
Authors: Christina A. Pedersen ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Kai Bischof ( University of Bremen ); Jack Kohler ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Radovan Krejci ( Stockholm University ); Maarten J. J. E. Loonen ( University of Groningen )
The annual mean temperature in Ny-Ålesund Research Station, Svalbard, has risen by 1.3 ± 0.7 C per decade, with a maximum seasonal increase during the winter months of 3.1 ± 2.6 C per decade (Maturilli et al., 2015). This prove Ny-Ålesund and the long-time series from the station to be a representative for the new Arctic. Ny-Ålesund is located at the northernmost point of the warm Atlantic Ocean inflow, and hosts a sophisticated infrastructure that enables observations of relevant parameters in the ocean, on land, and in the atmosphere. The site is, thus, among other ideally positioned for research and monitoring of contemporary environmental changes related to climate change issues. With its long-term data series, the station represents one of the most important environmental monitoring site in the Arctic, and hosts numerous international multidisciplinary collaborative science projects from institutions from more than ten nations.
This presentation shows results from some of the unique long time series from Ny-Ålesund, and also describes how the established coordinating tools (NySMAC and the flagship networks) increase the scientific outcome of the various institutes individual long-term time series.
- 16:00 The dominant time scales and spatial patterns of Barents Sea ice variance and retreat
Authors: Evangelia (Elina) Efstathiou ( University of Bergen / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Tor Eldevik ( University of Bergen / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Marius Årthun ( University of Bergen / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research )
The recent decade has seen reduced sea ice growth leading to an accelarated trend toward lower Barents Sea ice extent, with the sea ice extent in 2016 and 2017 being the lowest on records. A general dependence of Barents Sea ice cover on the inflow of Atlantic water is well known including predictability. However, the latter studies have been concerned with putting one areal number of change without further assesing the associated dominant temporal and spatial patterns of variance. A more detailed assessment is necessary for more practical and informative predictions, and for more a mechanistic understanding. In order to examine the dominant spatial patterns of sea ice variability and their temporal variations, we apply an empirical orthogonal function analysis on observed sea ice concentration data provided by NOAA. The analysis reveals one dominant pattern of sea-ice variance, highly correlated with the Atlantic inflow, and two other patterns that characterize redistribution of the sea ice within the area.
- 16:00 Influence of SST in the tropical oceans on the Arctic climate
Authors: Genrikh Alekseev ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, ); Svetlana Kuzmina ( Nansen Centre, St. Petersburg, ); Natalia Glok ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, )
The first objective is to assess the role of meridional atmospheric heat and moisture transport (MAHT) in the temperature variations in the Arctic. MAHT across 70N into 70–90N area was calculated using ERA/Interim reanalysis data for 1979–2016. It is found that main inflow in winter comes across 0–80E within layer between the surface and 750 hPa and explains more than 50 % of variability of surface air temperature in the 70–90N area. The second objective was to assess the influence of SST anomalies in the low latitudes of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans on change in the winter MAHT to the Arctic. The area and month with maximal correlation between SST and winter MAHT (up to 0.75) as well as respective lags (27-30 months) in each ocean were found. The third objective is an assessment of the influence of SST anomalies in low latitudes on surface air temperature sea and ice cover in the Arctic. Series of water temperature at the section in the Barents Sea, sea ice extent and surface air temperature in the Arctic were used additionally. It is found intimate link between change of Atlantic SST in low latitudes and sea ice extent in the Arctic with correlation coefficients up to 0.90 and delays up to 3 years. A mechanism of the influence of SST anomalies in low latitudes on winter MAHT, sea ice and air temperature is proposed. It includes the interactions of atmospheric (Hadley and Ferrel circulations, NAO) and oceanic (Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic and the Norwegian currents) circulation patterns.
- 16:00 Arctic Herbivore Success in a Changing Climate
Authors: Rebecca Duncan ( University Centre in Svalbard )
Global climate change is accelerated in the Arctic, with temperatures rising twice as fast as the global average in the past three decades (Screen & Simmonds, 2010), with the projected warming ranging from 2°C to 9°C by the year 2100 (Anisimov et al. 2007). One of the most visible signs of climate change in the Arctic is the persistent annual decrease in Arctic sea ice extent of approximately 45,000km2 per year (NSDIC, 2018). In addition, multi-year ice cover is declining at approximately 11% per decade, resulting in an environment dominated by first-year ice, which is thin and more vulnerable to Summer melting (Comiso et al. 2017; AMAP, 2017). As the sea ice forms the basis of the Arctic ecosystem, an overall decline in the sea ice extent is expected to significantly alter the biology of the system. It is also expected to play a central role in Arctic temperature amplification, as ice-free waters result in large heat fluxes to the atmosphere from the warming ocean (Kaplan & New, 2006). Furthermore, it is linked to changes in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation patterns and local weather conditions, including snow depth (IPCC, 2007; Liu et al. 2012).
To examine how these changes in climate and sea ice extent impact the local physical conditions and biology of a system, this research uses statistical models to analyse the available sea ice extent and atmospheric data with twenty years of time-series data collected in Zackenberg, Greenland. The time series data includes a wide range of local physical conditions including temperature, precipitation and snow depth, vegetation productivity (NDVI) and population data including annual counts, fecundity, age structure and mortality rates.
Specifically, variations in snow depth are expected to have a significant effect on the success of the two dominant herbivores, the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) and the collared lemming (Dicrosonyx groenlandicus), as snow depth is a crucial factor determining vegetation phenology and productivity, access to vegetation and the ability to nest and hide from predation. The two herbivores are therefore expected to succeed under different snow conditions. As a result, this research highlights how complex it can be to determine appropriate ecosystem management strategies and that there is rarely a ‘one size fits all approach’ due to the interdependent and often non-linear ecological relationships involved. This understanding is especially important in the Arctic, as the accelerated effects of climate change mean that Arctic ecosystems require different and more immediate management strategies.
- 16:00 Estimating input of mercury from historical local sources and long range transport into the coastal marine system of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard
Authors: Frits Steenhuisen ( University of Groningen ); Martine van den Heuvel-Greve ( Wageningen Marine Research )
Studies within the Ny-Ålesund historic mining area on Svalbard show elevated levels of mercury (Hg) in soil, plants and biota in the mining area compared to reference sites. This study focuses on the relative contribution of land-based local mercury input from this area to the marine system compared to long range atmospheric transport of Hg. This was done by assessing Hg concentrations in sediments of meltwater streams in the mining area and of reference locations, as well as in marine sediments near the outflow of meltwater streams. Additionally, Hg concentrations in biota were assessed at the marine locations. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to obtain further insight into the relative contribution of local sources versus long range transport.
In each meltwater stream, four sediments samples were collected from points highest upstream and those closer to the the shoreline. Marine sediments were collected using a van Veen grab. Marine worms (Nephtys sp. and Polycirrus sp.) and three types of marine shell fish (Astarte borealis, Serripes groenlandicus and Macoma calcarea) were collected by sieving Van Veen grab samples.
Higher Hg and PAH concentrations were found in (terrestrial) sediments from meltwater streams running through the Ny-Ålesund mine area, and in marine biota and sediments collected near Ny-Ålesund mine, compared to those collected at the reference sites.
A clear relation was observed between total PAH and Hg levels in both meltwater sediment samples as well as marine sediment samples. Terrestrial samples assisted in the identification of hotspots on land as potential sources for the marine system, whereas marine samples assessed the impact radius in the marine system in the proximity of a terrestrial hotspot. Cluster analysis of the 15 PAH compounds supported this conclusion.
The relative contribution of land-based local mercury from a historic mine was only dominant in direct proximity to the mine, whereas this local signal quickly faded with distance from the mine, especially in the marine system with a high water exchange with the open ocean. At the reference site furthest away on the ocean side, long-range atmospheric transport seemed to be the main source for mercury, while the PAH profile showed no relation to the coal mining activities.
- 16:00 Physicochemical Response to Terrestrial Inputs in a River and Glacier-Influenced Arctic Fjord (Isfjorden, Svalbard)
Authors: Maeve McGovern ( NIVA, UiT ); Anita Evenset ( Akvaplan-niva, UiT ); Katrine Borgå ( UiO ); Janne E. Søreide ( UNIS ); Amanda Poste ( NIVA )
Increased terrestrial run-off in Arctic regions is one major impact of climate change. As temperatures and precipitation increase and permafrost thaws and glaciers melt, coastal areas are experiencing increased inputs from the terrestrial environment. These inputs bring water, sediments, nutrients, organic matter and contaminants across the land-ocean interface with a range of implications for coastal biogeochemistry and contamination. To investigate the nature and magnitude of these inputs, 17 stations were sampled in May, June and August along gradients in an Arctic fjord system (Isfjorden, Svalbard) in the summer of 2018. Physicochemical conditions were characterized through CTD and light profiles, and a variety of water chemistry analyses along gradients from glacier fronts and river outlets to the outer fjord. Stations close to the river outlets and glacier fronts were characterized by increased light attenuation and fresh, turbid waters while outer stations were clearer and more saline, especially in June. Gradients in levels of nutrients (N,P, Si), terrestrial organic matter, and contaminants (Hg, POPs) are expected to demonstrate conservative mixing, following the trends observed in salinity. Preliminary results of this study reveal a pervasive freshwater footprint in the inner fjord arms of Isfjorden and demonstrate that these inputs can have substantial effects on the local physicochemical conditions in the fjord with implications for the ecology and contaminantion of the system.
- 16:00 Anthropogenic microlitter in wastewater from Svalbard and Greenland -- The advantage of wastewater treatment
Authors: Lisa Winberg von Friesen ( IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute ); Lis Bach ( Aarhus University ); Kserstin Magnusson ( IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute ); Jakob Strand ( Aarhus University ); Geir Wing Gabrielsen ( Norwegian Polar Institute ); Maria Granberg ( IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute )
Wastewater is identified as an important source of anthropogenic microlitter to the marine environment in temperate areas, while similar investigations in the Arctic are largely lacking. Sewage and wastewater treatment is generally absent in the Arctic, partly due to difficult and costly maintenance of treatment plants in low temperature environments. There is also a tendency to underestimate the impact of smaller pollution sources in the vast Arctic wilderness. Consequently municipal, industrial and hospital wastewater is discharged directly into the sea. In the wake of climate change, industrial development and tourism is expected to increase in the Arctic. This leads to rapid and temporally varying population increases in these ecologically sensitive areas supported by a highly underprovided municipal infrastructure.
The aim of this investigation was to determine the input of anthropogenic microparticles (AMPs) from wastewater to coastal waters in Svalbard and Greenland. The two sites investigated were Sisimiut in Greenland where AMP contents in wastewater from the two main outlets was measured, and Ny Ålesund in Svalbard where a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was recently installed. The majority (95-98%) of the AMPs detected in all wastewaters tested consisted of fibers. The outgoing wastewater in Sisimiut contained up to 1000 AMPs l-1. At the time of measurement, the wastewater entering the treatment plant in Ny Ålesund contained 14 200 AMPs l-1 while the outgoing wastewater contained only 83 AMPs l-1. This indicates a high performance regarding AMP retention in the WWTP. A more comprehensive study is, however, required in order to determine the true efficiency of the WWTP in Ny Ålesund. This investigation clearly identifies wastewater as a source of antropogenic microlitter to the Arctic coastal environment. It also clearly shows that this source can be removed by installing appropriate sewage treatment.
- 16:00 Biovalorisation of marine raw rest materials: Towards the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymers
Authors: Cláudia Henriques ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ); Catarina S. S. Oliveira ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ); Bruno C. Marreiros ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ); Runar G. Solstad ( Nofima AS ); J. Johannes Eksteen ( NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS ); Maria A. M. Reis ( Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa )
Although being a key source of environmental pollution and especially harmful for the oceans, plastics remain a key component of contemporary society. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are versatile microbial polyesters that are receiving an increasing amount attention from industry due to their excellent biodegradable properties, thus posing a valuable alternative to conventional plastics. Marine raw rest materials (MRRM) are an abundant and underutilised resource in Norway, that may be used as cheap feedstock for the production of PHAs with potentially unique properties. Their production by mixed microbial consortia (MMC) is a known alternative for potential lowering PHA production costs, as it allows the use of waste/by-products as feedstock.
The presented work is within the scope of a joined project, NewPolySea, between NOVA.FCT (Portugal) and various Norway partners, which intends to address the demand for eco-friendly technologies by establishing biovalorisation processes for converting low-value MRRM into high-value bioproducts. The study presented here aims at assessing the potential for obtaining organic acids (HOrgs, precursor for PHA production), from different types of peptones obtained from proteinaceous MRRM.
The different peptones were attained through enzymatic hydrolyses of salmon-based raw rest materials by Nofima AS. After hydrolysis and enzyme deactivation, the hydrolysates were subsequent separated by centrifugation to yield three phases; a sediment (discarded), a peptone-rich water phase; and an oil phase. The peptone phase was concentrated by evaporation before spray drying. Four different peptones were tested in this study. Initially, the peptones were fully characterised in terms of average molecular weight, protein content, salinity, conductivity, and total nitrogen content.
A series of preliminary small-scale acidogenic batch assays were carried out with granular anaerobic sludge, using the four different peptones and following the guidelines from IWA Anaerobic Digestion Specialist Group. The aim was to gauge each of the peptones’ susceptibility to acidogenic fermentation, and identifying the one with the highest potential for HOrgs production in continuous mode.
The results obtained so far suggest that salmon peptones, produced using different hydrolysis procedures, can eventually yield PHA production of feedstocks with significantly different HOrgs profiles. Moreover, based on their HOrgs profiles, the four peptones would yield considerably dissimilar PHA polymers in terms of mechanical and physical characteristics. Consequently, each could be a potential interesting source for PHA production towards different polymer applications.
- 16:00 Pathways of Microplastics: from Siberian South to the Arctic North
Authors: Ksenia Korobchenkova ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Alexandra Ershova ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Denis Alexeev ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Every year millions of tonnes of plastic move from the land into the ocean, with some finding its way into remote areas, such as the Polar Regions. It is relatively easy to determine the source of marine macrolitter (discarded fishing gear, tourism or costal areas), however, micro-particles and fibers need a deeper study. Plastic waste (mainly fibrous microplastics and polyester) from Europe and Russia eventually ends up in the Arctic due to ocean circulation patterns. However, their origins and pathways remain unclear.
Present study was devoted to the preliminary assessment of microplastic pollution of the source of one of the largest Arctic rivers - Ob. Surface waters of a pristine and untouched Lake Teleckoye were investigated for the first time in July 2018.
Lake Teletskoye is a unique UNESCO heritage site and one of the largest reservoirs of pure fresh water in Russia, located in the North-East of the Altai mountains and is part of the Altai Reserve. The water quality of Lake Teletskoye is estimated as “very clean”. The lake is very narrow, deep and elongated, with over 70 rivers flowing into the lake, and only one flowing out – the Biya river, that merging with the Katun forms the Ob - one of the main arteries in the Russian Arctic bringing many harmful substances to the Kara Sea.
Method of research was based on a combination of international methods on microplastics sampling, with a man-made filtering instrument (tube and 100 µm cell “gauze” filter). Due to high clarity of water hundreds of liters were poured through the filter. Samples were analyzed with a microscope.
Analysis showed that microplastic particles were present in all samples (in total, 15 particles in 4 samples, mostly microfibers of various colours) both in near-shore samples and samples taken at the centre of the lake 30 km away from the settlements, despite the limited economic activity (there are only 2 little coastal villages). Two main sources of plastic litter were identified: leftover wastes from tourists and input of particles with wastewaters (microfibers).
Results showed that this research topic is relevant and important for Lake Teletskoye and requires further study not only for the lake itself but also for the Ob River for a more complete understanding of the migration pathways of microplastics with river flow into the Arctic seas.
- 16:00 GoJelly: A gellatinous solution to a plastic solution - Modelling of jellyfish biomass as a ressource for filtering microplastics
Authors: Lionel Eisenhauer ( SINTEF OCEAN )
Microplastics are a potential threat to the food web in the marine environment as the size range corresponds a major fraction of food items targeted by grazing and phagotrophic plankton species. Ways to reduce microplastic emissions, primarily from land to the marine environment, is therefore of interest. The GoJelly project (H2020) aims at developing a biofilter for water treatment based on jellyfish mucus able to trap nano- and microparticles. In conjunction with local increasing jellyfish blooms in many coastal areas, assessment and predictive methods for estimating jellyfish blooms as an exploited future ressource at sustainable levels must be developed. An eularian implementation of a scyphozoan jellyfish life-cyle in the SINMOD ecosystem model and a case study for the deep sea holopelagic species Periphylla periphylla (Péron&Lesueur, 1809) is presented. Consequences on the varying jellyfish biomass levels on the mesozooplankton grazer biomass available to important planktivorous fish and fish larvae along the Norwegian coast are dicussed.
- 16:00 Degradation of plastic microfibres, leaching of additive chemicals and interaction with persistent organic pollutants in polar environments
Authors: Lisbet Sørensen ( SINTEF Ocean ); Shannen Sait ( NTNU ); Torbjørn Nguyen ( NTNU ); Alexandros Asimakopoulos ( NTNU ); Rudolf Schmid ( NTNU ); Iurgi Salaverria ( NTNU ); Andy Booth ( SINTEF Ocean )
Synthetic microplastic fibres (MPFs) are increasingly being reported as one of the dominant forms of microplastic pollution in aquatic environments. Clothing and textiles produced from synthetic fibres such as polyester (PES), polyacrylic (PAC) and nylon (PA) are considered some of the main sources of MPFs. However, there has been little focus on the environmental fate of MPFs, especially in polar regions where there is often no wastewater treatment. The MICROFIBRE project is investigating the environmental fate and effects of the most commonly used synthetic fibres; polyacrylic (PAN), polyamides (nylon) and polyester (PES), together with a natural fibre (wool) as a control, in polar and temperate aquatic environments. MPFs have be generated from pristine yarns in lengths matching those observed for MPFs released from domestic washing machines during washing of synthetic textiles (ca. 1-3 mm x 10-20 µm). Comprehensive physicochemical characterization of the fibres has been conducted, including investigation of organic and metal additive contents. Long-term degradation studies, investigating the effect of UV radiation and mechanical abrasion on the physical and chemical stability of fibres are being conducted under a range of temperatures, including under Arctic marine conditions (5°C). Furthermore, the possibility of MPFs acting as vectors for toxic chemicals is being studied. This is approach includes both the release of intrinsic MPF additive chemicals leaching into seawater and freshwater and also the interaction of different MPFs with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) already ubiquitously present in the environment. We will present results that show how temperature, salinity and polymer type all have significant impacts on the extent of both processes.
- 16:00 Waste Management System in Russia
Authors: Ludmila Ivanova ( Kola Science Centre ); Galina Kharitonova ( Kola Science Centre )
Russia is the world's largest sea power, having direct access to 12 seas of three oceans (the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic). Within the general intensification of maritime activities, the Russian fleets undoubtedly contribute negatively to pollution of the Global Ocean. One of the efficient tools of solving the pollution problem is development of a legal framework for maritime navigation and protection against pollution of water areas and sea coasts. Therefore Russia has joined various international universal and regional legal acts. Besides Russia is a member of the Arctic Council and supports a number of projects aimed at protection of the marine environment.
Within the country the state policy in the field of waste management, including legal regulation of pollution of marine areas and coasts is based on the Federal law “On Environmental Protection” and the Federal law “On Production and Consumption Wastes”, which define the legal basis for handling production and consumption wastes and involving them in economic circulation as additional sources of raw materials. These laws are the basic ones for the broader environmental legislation implemented at three levels of governance: national, regional and municipal.
Despite the fact that the country does not yet have a centralized system for collecting and processing wastes the legal framework regulating waste management has been improved. In particular amendments to the Federal Law “On Production and Consumption Wastes” and some other legislative acts resulted in approving the List of finished goods, including packaging, to be disposed after their consumer properties are lost, and the norms for their utilization. Also the implementation of innovations in the legislation allowed environmental entrepreneurship (small and medium-sized businesses) to take over certain parts or functions of the waste management system or to implement complex small projects for collection, transportation, use, processing, and disposal of wastes. However the process of establishing an efficient waste management system in Russia should go on.
- 16:00 Occurrence and Fate of Microplastics in Arctic Fjords
Authors: Madeleine Purver ( University Centre of the Westfjords and NIVA ); Pernilla Carlsson ( University Centre of the Westfjords and NIVA )
There is more widely information available of the economic consequences of marine litter, where plastics make up to 80% of this category. For example, the UN reports that fisheries, aquaculture companies and marine tourism are suffering a cost of $8 billion a year due to marine litter (UNEP, 2015). The impact and cost of microplastics are yet unknown, although public awareness, as well as financial awareness, are arising.
The main aim of this project is to gain more understanding of microplastic pollution fate and occurrence in Arctic fjords, including investigations whether atmospheric long-range transport plays an important role in the transport of microplastics to the Arctic. Isfjorden, Svalbard was chosen as the main sampling area since it contains fjord arms with different features although all fjords are within a reasonable distance. Samples were collected in four of the fjords, two with little traffic and visitors (Ekmanfjorden and Dicksonfjorden) and two fjords containing settlements (Grønfjorden; Russian settlement Barentsburg and Adventfjorden; Norwegian settlement Longyearbyen). Samples were taken from the mouth of the fjord to catch riverine and glacial inputs as well as the impact from the local settlements when present. The samples were collected using a manta net, and also a high-capacity pump system with metal filters.
The samples will be analysed near-infrared (n-IR) spectrometry to confirm the composition of any microplastic particles detected by visual analysis.
Since microplastics have been found in the ‘pristine’ Arctic, it illustrates how contaminants can impact remote locations and not just highly populated areas. Next, this global problem will need to be addressed at the source; politically, economically and environmentally.
- 16:00 It's a long way to the Arctic: first record of plastic debris in the stomach of a hooded seal pup in the Greenland Sea.
Authors: Marianna Pinzone ( University of Liège ); Erling Sverre Nordøy ( Arctic University of Tromsø UiT ); Krishna Das ( University of Liège )
In April 2017, we conducted a cruise in the Greenland Sea, on board of the RV “Helmer Hansen”. The main objective was to collect tissue samples of hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups, during the post-weaning fast. Four hooded seals (1 male, 3 females) were sampled. Hooded seals’ length ranged between 93 and 105 cm. We estimated the pups to be ± 20 days old. We examined the digestive apparatus of all pups for the presence of prey and/or milk. Most stomachs and intestines were empty, except for hooded seal pup #H1-17 that contained milk at the end of the small intestine, and #H5-17, which contained three semi-digested shrimps (possibly Themisto spp.) and five pieces of plastic debris in its stomach. The latter consisted of buoyant, light-plastic pieces, originating from a larger food package from a well-known food manufacturing company. Their length ranged from 0.03cm to 11.2cm, their width ranged from 0.08cm to 7.0cm. Hooded seals from the Greenland Sea stock give birth in the pack ice in late March. Two-three weeks after weaning, pups start searching for food at the outer edge of the pack ice. During the first excursions, blueback pups focus on ice-associated crustaceans such as Themisto spp. The presence of plastic debris in one of the pups, however, was rather surprising. Many observations exist of Arctic animals (seabirds, sharks, whales) ingesting plastic debris. Plastic reaches the Northeastern Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean from highly populated southern latitudes via the Gulf Stream. In our case, the plastic debris seem to derive from a distribution site in Texas. Mysticetes may accidentally ingest floating material along with prey species when filter feeding. Seabirds may actively feed on plastic due to the resemblance with their normal prey. On the contrary, seals that feed selectively on fish, crustaceans and deep-water cephalopods have not been recorded to feed on plastic debris until now. To our knowledge, this is the first record of plastic ingestion by a phocidae species in the Arctic. The decrease in ice cover and thickness, as well as a dramatic increase in the use and expel of human made plastic during the last decades may have increased plastic scattering at the water surface of the Arctic Ocean. Increased availability of plastic, even in the remote areas of the pack ice, may currently increase the risk of plastic being eaten by unexperienced, hungry seal pups.
- 16:00 Challenges and emerging solutions for land-based plastic waste in the Arctic Region
Authors: Amy Brooks ( University of Georgia ); Jenna Jambeck ( University of Georgia )
As scientific understanding and estimates of the amounts and types of plastic waste entering the natural environment progresses, it is important to recognize variation due to geographic differences. Estimates of global and country-level mismanaged waste have been made, but more information is needed to understand how different cultures, geographies, and populations impact levels of land-based sources of marine debris. The Arctic region is one that requires unique approaches for ensuring sustainable solid waste management due to the distinctive polar weather, significant indigenous populations that are geographically spread out, and dependence upon the sea for food and energy resources. Because of the dispersed and remote communities in the Arctic, waste management can be challenging, forcing many Arctic countries to rely on open dumping, incineration, and exporting. To address the need for a review of Arctic trends regarding solid waste management and marine debris, existing information of waste management of the region was compiled to help understand Arctic waste management issues on a regional scale. In this study, we identify land-based sources of plastic waste in the Arctic based on coastal populations within the Arctic Circle, as well as identify existing and potential intervention strategies that can be taken in Arctic communities to prevent waste from reaching the environment.
- 16:00 Macroplastics massive observation over 81°N: HighNorth18 expedition record on july 2018
Authors: Franco Borgogno ( European Research Institute ); Roberta Ivaldi ( Italian Hydrographic Institute ); Maurizio Demarte ( Italian Hydrographic Institute )
In July 2018, during the Arctic Marine geophysical expedition, High North18 (07-26 July 2018), we found and documented, first time ever, massive presence of objects or large plastic fragments even near and in the Arctic ice pack, over 81° north latitude, northern Svalbard islands: 156 items, documented with gps locations, photographs, description, observation time (https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/edit?mid=17Xx-bp_OJGtKWuFmHxlx9KLFVbq8W4EN&ll=81.19305284499922%2C12.850572499999998&z=7).
Until that moment, it was believed that microplastics (fragments of less than 5 millimeters) pollution at high latitude (over 80°N) was probable, but not the macroplastics patch. In the High North18 scientific expedition led by the Italian Hydrographic Institute, part of a pluri-annual IT-Navy research program named HIGH NORTH, that involve many Italian research institutes as CNR, ENEA, OGS, INGV, ERI we planned to take water and sediment samples with manta trawl, box corer and videocamera, to gather information about microplastics.
Instead, we had a terrible surprise: July 16th (nothing in the previous days) we begun to observe dozen of items and gather information about macroplastics. First it was a pipe fragment, accidentally; then many, many others - with regular observations period - until July 19th: also in the sea ice, one every three minutes of observation. This result update and worsened global knowledge on the state of the sea plastic pollution.
The observations was in different periods of the day, from the navy side deck without binocular (naked eye).
The data we collected, the pictures and video that we purpose, the story that we tell link our daily life to those extreme, stunning, wild places, the Arctic ice pack.
- 16:00 Ban the Bag
Authors: Sladana Jovic ( Secondary school ); Bojana Mitriceski Andelkovic ( Primary school Branislav Nušić )
About the project Ban the Bags-protect the ocean - think globally and act locally
organazinig this project, students will do a campaign with the aim of highlighting the disadvantages of using plastic bags in our everyday life. They will inform their local societies and suggest ways to replace them with cotton ones. A campaign logo will be organized in few steps.
First competition -voting between the students from different schools in the municipality in Nis,Serbia and the vinner logo will be pronunced as official logo of the project and will be promoted as the common sign for the compagn.
Second step will be dissiminnation of the bags and media promotion about the project in public
Third step will be education among students –peer education about plastic and enviromental protection from it.
Forth step will be sustenable goals of the project –no more plastic bags ,we will continualy educate public about protection of the fresh and clear water on the Earth and how to preserve nice blue sea water for future generation.
The objectives of this project for students are:
- To be able to evaluate and selecte the information which can be found on the internet
- To highlight their detailed positions on the contemporary problems of society,take an acting roll in the life not just passive observers
- To make important steps to rise awerness of collective activities
- To think globally and act locally
leaflet in the English language about the detrimental effect of the use of plastic bags in the environment. This leaflet will be distributed to the respective schools and municipalities.
2) One video that will promotes the idea of the total ban of the plastic bags. The scenario will be a common product in English, the production will be made in serbian and there will be a subtitling in the English language.
3) A logo of this campaign that will be printed on cloth bags and will be distributes in the city of Nis
- 16:00 Aker BP's HSE Practice for Exploration Drilling in the Barents Sea
Authors: Nina Aas ( Aker BP ); Ragni Hatlebakk ( Aker BP ); Espen Nysted ( Aker BP ); Kjell Martin Edin ( Aker BP )
In the past years a majority of Aker BP’s exploration wells have been drilled in the mature areas in the North Sea, where the infrastructure is good and the discovery rate still high. To increase reserve rate as well as production, discoveries close to existing fields and installations are favored. Aker BP has ambitions to become a producing operator in the Barents Sea. In preparation for this, Aker BP supports a range of research and development projects within various fields of science and at different universities: BASEC, the Barents Sea Exploration Collaboration, CIRFA, Centre for Integrated Remote Sensing and Forecasting for Arctic Operations, ARCEx, Research Centre for Arctic Petroleum Exploration, SAMCOT, Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology and Coldtech, Sustainable Cold Climate Technology.
Aker BP’s overall vision is to create the leading independent offshore E&P company. This implies maintaining the highest HSE standards while being leading on cost. In 2018, the first exploration well was drilled in the Barents Sea, at the Svanefjell location. The drilling operation was carried out according to the scheduled time for drilling and without HSE incidents, and it resulted in a gas discovery.
The experiences gained during the drilling will be mentioned. Furthermore, preparatory work to focus on risk in all operations will be described. Environmental issues were identified early and handled both in the planning and later in the operational phase. These included amongst others seabed fauna and seabirds as well as discharges and emissions. Examples of measure to reduce environmental risk will be described, like testing of a new drilling mud, water treatment, mini-test (formation testing while tripping) and well testing.
- 16:00 Mechanisms of ocean heat anomalies in the Norwegian Sea
Authors: Helene Asbjørnsen ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, ); Marius Årthun ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, ); Øystein Skagseth ( Institute of Marine Research, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, ); Tor Eldevik ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, )
Ocean heat content in the Norwegian Sea exhibits pronounced variability on interannual to decadal time scales. These ocean heat anomalies are known to influence Arctic sea ice extent, marine ecosystems, and continental climate. It is, however, still unknown to what extent such heat anomalies are produced locally within the Norwegian Sea, and to what extent the region is more of a passive receiver of anomalies formed elsewhere. In order to address this issue, a regional heat budget is calculated for the Norwegian Sea using the ECCOv4 ocean state estimate - a dynamically and kinematically consistent model framework fitted to ocean observations from the period 1992-2015. The depth-integrated Norwegian Sea heat budget shows that approximately 50% of the interannual heat content variability is explained by ocean advection, and 50% is explained by local air-sea heat fluxes. Spatial analysis of the individual heat budget terms indicates that ocean advection is a dominant driver of heat content variability along the Atlantic water pathway, with local atmospheric forcing acting to modify the heat anomalies along their poleward pathway. Further spatial and temporal decompositions of the advection term indicate Atlantic water inflow strength to be a major source of Norwegian Sea heat content variability, and inversely linked to the Subpolar Gyre strength. Our results provide a better understanding of regional ocean heat anomalies and how these interact with the atmosphere, and, hence, improve our knowledge of the ocean’s role in near-term climate change.
- 16:00 Mercury levels in top predators as a valuable marker of environmental state and potential health risk to Arctic marine biota.
Authors: Marianna Pinzone ( University of Liège ); Erling Sverre Nordøy ( Arctic University of Tromsø UiT ); Jean-Pierre Desforges ( University of Aarhus ); Igor Eulaers ( University of Aarhus ); Rune Dietz ( University of Aarhus ); Krishna Das ( University of Liège )
Mercury (Hg) in Arctic biota is increasing in contrast with trends in the rest of the world. In top predators, tissue levels surpassed the established toxicity thresholds. New research has revealed how the Arctic Hg cycle has altered because of sea-surface temperature increase and sea-ice cover decline. True seals are Arctic top predators. As such, Hg level in their tissue may represent a valuable integrator for changes in Hg cycling in their food chain. Our objective was to assess how the health risk associated with Hg exposure has evolved in the last 20 years in response to environmental changes. We measured Total-Hg levels in liver of hooded seals Cystophora cristata (N = 10), harp seals Pagophilus groenlandicus (N = 13) and ringed seals Pusa hispida (N = 24) through Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (DMA-80 Milestone). We grouped seals in five toxicity risk classes and compared them to the results of Dietz et al. (2005), based upon effect threshold categories calculated for harp seals by Ronald et al. (1977). Overall, hooded seals presented the highest values, followed by ringed seals and harp seals (all p < 0.05). 100% of harp seals (all ages) were in the “no effect” category, as well as yearlings of hooded and harp seals. 22% of sub-adults and 45% of adult ringed seals belonged to the “low risk” category. Conversely, all hooded seals resulted at risk with 100% of sub-adults and 25% of adults in the “low risk” class, 25% of adults in the “high risk” class and 50% of adults in the “severe risk” class. Our classification resulted very different from the 2000s when only 20% of the hooded seals’ population was at “high risk” and 20% of ringed seals was at “low risk”. This shows that Arctic true seals are at increasing toxicity risk as a consequence of the undergoing environmental changes, with some species (hooded seal) being more affected than others (harp seal). The change in length of ice season may have determined a shift in prey diversity, modifying levels of Hg exposure to seals, while the decrease in ice cover altered rates of Hg methylation in the water column and consequently its bioavailability. Our future goal is to correlate ice-cover data with seals’ Hg levels in the last 100 years, to confirm the link between climate change and Hg accumulation in seals and potentially foresee future trends of toxicity risk in Arctic top predators.
- 16:00 Relating nitrogen status, growth and biofouling of cultivated Saccharina latissima deployed at different times of the year in northern Norway
Authors: Sanna Matsson ( Akvaplan-niva, UiT ); Bodil Bluhm ( UiT ); Anna Metaxas ( Dalhousie University ); Hartvig Christie ( NIVA ); Silje Forbord ( SINTEF/NTNU ); Aleksander Handå ( SINTEF )
Kelp cultivation is gaining interest in Europe. This is due to a general need for ingredients for a number of products such as human foods, fish diets, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biofuel etc., that do not require fresh water, land areas and fertilizers. Kelp cultivation offers a range of ecosystem services such as habitat for young fish, climate regulation, waste treatment, as well as providing an opportunity for sustainable livelihoods for coastal communities. Biofouling on cultivated kelp by epibionts usually has a negative impact on the quality and quantity of kelp biomass. Therefore, kelp is harvested before the onset of fouling organisms. It is desirable to prolong the cultivation season and reduce the level of fouling. We studied the effect of deployment season of cultivated sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, on the internal nutrient status and growth rate of the kelp and seasonal variation in biofouling coverage at 69°N. Kelp were deployed in February, April and May and growth was measured through hole punching, kelp tissue were collected for internal Nitrate-N and C/N, and amount of fouling organisms were analysed. The May deployment coincided with the spring bloom and most of the biomass was lost. Preliminary results from this study show that kelp deployed April experienced a later onset of biofouling and had a higher daily growth rate than kelp deployed in February. Nutrient samples are currently analysed. Our results suggest that deploying kelp later in the season can extend the cultivation season in northern Norway without encountering extensive biofouling.
- 16:00 Aker BP's Field of the Future Development Concept
Authors: Kjetil Aasoldsen ( Aker BP ); Bård Atle Hovd ( Aker BP ); Terje Solheim ( Aker BP ); Knut Jogeir Landa ( Aker BP )
Compared to other industries, the oil and gas industry has a value potential by including new technology and digitalization in future field developments.
Aker BP also believes there is a value potential by working smarter (maximize flow efficiency) and reduce waste in processes internally and between suppliers and other partners.
To take on these opportunities, Aker BP has defined a field development concept we call Field of the Future. The solution is defined by 4 key principles
- Unmanned facilities
- Remotely operated
- All electric
- Zero emissions/discharges
Digitalization is a fundamental part of the concept, with the use of autonomous operations, predictive analytics, digital processes and digital workflows.
Aker BP is working closely with strategic suppliers through alliances and academia to develop the concept.
By doing so we see future field developments with improved HSE, reduced capital investments, high uptime and reduced operational expenses.
According to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Barents Sea holds the most undiscovered oil and gas volumes on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. As Aker BP is a fully-fledged E&P company with exploration, development and production activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Barents Sea is an interesting area for Aker BP.
Aker BP is actively seeking new acreage in the Barents Sea and will through 2018 and 2019 participation in several exploration wells. Two of these as operator.
The Barents Sea has its field development challenges related to reduced resource density compared to the North Sea and Norwegian Sea, long distances and lack of existing infrastructure both offshore and onshore. Aker BP believes the Field of the Future concept is well suited for the Barents Sea.
- 16:00 Smart Renewable Micro-Grid Control Using Reinforcement Learning
Authors: Phuong Ngo ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Fred Godtliebsen ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.
With the development of renewable energy sources, there is an emerged challenge in the operation and integration of wind and solar powers into the grid since the productions of wind and solar energy are intermittent and depending on weather and environmental conditions. This study proposes an approach to assist with the operation control in microgrid, an integrated system that includes renewable energy sources, loads and batteries. By interacting with the environment and learning from data, the approach provides optimal actions using reinforcement learning that minimize the cost over time while providing enough power for the loads. We propose an algorithm to control the charging and discharging process of the storage battery for a maximum reduction of energy cost from the usage of external power grid. The proposed algorithm is presented by a simulation using Matlab Simscape. The simulation includes a single-phase AC system consisting of a solar power panel, a storage battery and loads from three regular family houses and a pole mounted transformer for voltage conversion from the electricity network as a supplement power supply. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm through robust operations with loads and power provided by the solar panel varying within a day.
- 16:00 Climate Change and Salmon Aquaculture: Biological Significance and Possible Strategies for Adaptation
Authors: Elisabeth Ytteborg ( Nofima ); Øystein Hermansen ( Nofima ); Trevor Telfer ( University of Stirling ); Bruce McAdam ( University of Stirling ); Solfrid Sætre Hjøllo ( Institute of Marine research ); Lynne Falconer ( University of Stirling )
Average temperature increase in Norway has been 1°C since the 1980s. With climate change, temperatures are expected to continue to increase.
This study involved an evaluation of past, present and potential future sea surface temperature to assess the implications of temperature change on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture in Norway. Global, regional and farm-scale temperature data was used to evaluate likely temperatures in 2050.The temperatures were further linked to the salmon biology and known thresholds linked to its thermal window. Salmon have biological and environmental requirements which must be met to enable effective production. Only a number of countries throughout the world meet the necessary criteria, meaning production areas are limited. Consequently, for long term sustainability, it is vitally important to evaluate the past, present and potential future characteristics of an area that may affect production.
Farmed salmon held in sea cages have limited possibilities to migrate from environmental changes, and environmental effects do directly affect the fish performance. Climate changes are likely to result in frequent periods of elevated sea temperatures, especially in the Southern and Western parts of Norway. Periods with seawater temperatures above the optimum for growth has been shown to result in reduced appetite and growth, increased mortality and disease problems in the intensive farming of Atlantic salmon. Changes in temperature may further affect the site production, the spreading, distribution and severity of diseases and outbreaks, and the carrying capacity of the environment. Increased sea surface temperature due to global warming will therefore have implications for the salmon industry, potentially affecting how, and where salmon are farmed. Even gradual changes will have consequences for the sector and should be considered in national and regional aquaculture plans and strategies.
Assessment of temperature changes across spatial and temporal scales can provide information to support the industry in evaluating opportunities and risks and enable the development of adaptation, or mitigation, strategies where necessary. The results highlight how spatial and temporal assessment of temperature can be useful for the aquaculture industry when considering potential impacts and opportunities from climate change.
This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 677039 (ClimeFish).
- 16:00 Human Health Risk Assessment as a Foundation for Sustainable Urban Development
Authors: Timur Nizamutdinov ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University ); Denis K. Alexeev ( Russian State Hydrometeorological University )
Sustainable Urban Development is impossible without authoritative information on current state of the environment. The problem of atmospheric air pollution is especially relevant for Arctic cities. Climatic and natural features determine the distribution of impurities in the atmosphere largely. One of the main objectives of green technologies in large cities is to save health and well-being of inhabitants. Typically, green technologies are aimed at solving local problems and are not widely used in long-term planning and reorganization of the existing urban space. Usually the efforts being made in that connection are sporadic and local. At the same time, there is a need to assess the planned projects both before the implementation and after. It is necessary to carefully analyze the quality of the environment for the implementation and validation of various decisions for sustainable urban development.
Risk assessment makes it possible to assess not only the effect of single pollutant on the health but an effect of multiple pollutants. Besides, this approach allows us to estimate the effect of air pollution for various age groups.
The main goal of this research study is to estimate the health risk in Arkhangelsk using European criterion for risk assessment (WHO Human Health Risk Assessment Toolkit: Chemical Hazards). Besides, a time-space distribution of health risk in the city was studied. The research work was done using the data of Federal State budgetary institution "Northern Administration for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring». The calculation results show urban areas where green technologies need implementing to reduce the risk value. This approach to the problem of atmospheric air pollution makes it possible to do a long-term assessment of possible negative effect on health of inhabitants and identify the trend towards reduced emissions of pollutants. Based on these projections and analysis of allocation of risk, the priority areas for using «green technologies» in the city of Arkhangelsk was described.
- 16:00 Smart integration of PV, EV and Energy Storage into distribution and micro grids.
Authors: Terje Gjengedal ( UiT ); Charu Sharma ( UiT ); Pawan Sharma ( UiT )
NB: Please consider this submission for the session(s) organised by the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), UiT.
Electric utility companies are concerned with the potential difficulties caused by the large-scale penetration of photovoltaics (PVs) and EVs in the power grid. Various challenges may stem from the intermittent nature of solar PVs and unpredictable EV loads that may cause supply-demand imbalances, such as reverse power flow, malfunctioning network protectors, fluctuating voltage and frequency. These difficulties will especially affect the distribution side of the grid where households and buildings directly connect to PVs and EVs.
The deployment of energy storage systems offers a practical and effective solution to improve the behavior of renewable energy sources from a grid perspective. Among feasible types of energy storage technologies, battery storage systems are widely used and fairly developed. As a result, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are prime targets of research to accompany distributed generation with the goal of enhancing power quality.
The primary purposes in this paper are to examine how integration of PVs, EVs and Energy storage systems can support and improve the grid. In the paper we will present the following topics
- Study of the PV, EV and storage system impact on power system network:
This highlights the searching state of the art technology for PVs, EVs and storage and its impact on power systems. This part of the study may be intended for collecting information and review PV, EV and storage applications on power system networks,such as in terms of interconnection, as well as the methodologies for assessing system impacts.
- Reviewing and developing state of the art of smart micro grids:
In this part we will review the current concept of system integration of PVs,EVs and storage from available literature (IEEE, Cigre, others, also national papers)
- Develop and present a system model and configuration of a micro grid system including PVs, EVS and storage technologies:
Based on the literature review and an actual case develop a simulation model of a smart micro grid system configuration including select models of PVs, EVs and storage systems. Discuss control strategies for using the PVs, EVs and storage in a smart way to improve the system voltage and frequency.
- Performance analysis, testing and data validation:
Present results from the system configuration. Validate the results by developing case studies to find the impact on voltage and frequency.
- 16:00 Integrated environmental studies in the Svalbard region with respect to climate changes.
Authors: Tymon Zielinski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Paulina Pakszys ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Marcin Wichorowski ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Ewa Piechowska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
The Arctic and thus the Svalbard region are undergoing rapid climate changes, which is manifested in many ways, e.g. temperature changes are over 3 times greater than the average for the Northern Hemisphere. This phenomenon is commonly known as the Arctic amplification. The current environmental state of Svalbard and sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around the archipelago, may reflect the situation which can be expected in the Arctic in less than 50 years from now. Therefore, since this is a key area to investigate, and the changes are very rapid and effect the entire environment, our research must be interdisciplinary.
Starting 1 October 2018, at the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, we are realizing a Ph.D. program, which presents a holistic approach to the description of environmental changes in the Svalbard region. The study involves creation of an integrated system to analyze environmental data, which have been collected in the Svalbard area by the Institute researchers over the past decades, with a special focus to the period 2013-2018. The novelty of this approach is that this system will facilitate the application of mechanisms for the combination of heterogeneous environmental data, which have been collected during the field studies, through defining of the association ontology between the data and the mechanisms of functional interconnections among data, with initial analysis of these interconnections. Such a dataset will facilitate more efficient search for environmental data as well as more complex description of the Svalbard ecosystem.
- 16:00 Copernicus Marine: A "one-stop-shop" data facilitator for marine management and operations
Authors: Vidar S. Lien ( Institute of Marine Research ); Øivind Bergh ( Institute of Marine Research ); Henning Wehde ( Institute of Marine Research )
Copernicus is the European Earth Observation infrastructure. As partners in the Cordinet project (Horizon 2020) we focus on promoting and facilitating Copernicus marine observations, particularly in the High North. Copernicus Marine is a “one-stop-shop” providing freely available operational data on the state of the marine environment for use by marine managers, advisors, and scientists, as well as intermediate and end users in marine businesses and operations. The Copernicus Marine offers operationally updated and state-of-the-art products that are well documented and transparent. The European Commission’s long-term commitment to the Copernicus program offers long-term visibility and stability of the Copernicus Marine products. Furthermore, Copernicus Marine offers a dedicated service desk, in addition to training sessions and workshops. The service addresses four segments:
Coastal and marine environment
Weather, climate, and seasonal forecasting
We highlight three use-cases from our growing user base, that showcase the use of Copernicus Marine data to the benefit of both local communities and society at large, as well as businesses, in the Arctic.
- 16:00 The Arctic Marine Litter Project - Knowing the sources to work on solutions
Authors: Wouter Jan Strietman ( Wageningen Economic Research ); Jannike Falk-Andersson ( SALT Lofoten ); Eelco Leemans ( Leemans Maritime Consultancy )
Although lying at the outer edge of Europe, the Arctic is not isolated and certainly not unaffected by human influence. High levels of plastic are found in the Arctic, where it not only poses a safety hazard to shipping and a threat to wildlife but also to local communities and tourists who are unwittingly exposed to this waste.
In order to tackle this problem, the first steps have been taken at the local and international level. Examples of such initiatives are beach clean-ups, monitoring and research, policy and industry initiatives. To be able to take effective action, however, information is needed on the exact origin and stakeholders, the underlying reasons why litter is ending up in the sea and what can be done to prevent this. This detailed information has previously been unavailable, preventing a more targeted approach.
The Arctic Marine Litter Project was setup in 2017 by Wageningen Economic Research, Leemans Maritime Consultancy (The Netherlands) and SALT Lofoten (Norway) in collaboration with local organisations, researchers, policymakers and industry representatives, in order to bridge the existing knowledge gap. The knowledge gained through the project aims at providing input into ongoing initiatives on marine litter in the Arctic and initiating new ones where needed and in this way supporting efforts to reduce marine litter in the Arctic.
During 2017 and 2018, the first steps in a cyclical process to gain knowledge and work on solutions have been taken. By applying detailed beach litter analysis methods such as the ‘Deep dive’ methodology (developed by SALT) and the fishing net protocol (developed by Wageningen Economic Research), crucial insight has been gained for the first time into the origin, the main stakeholders and the underlying behaviour and processes that have resulted in litter ending up on the beaches of Svalbard. This new information will be shared at the Arctic Frontiers 2019 conference. Based on these first steps, the main stakeholders will be engaged with in 2019 as part of the process to take action and prevent marine litter from ending up in the Arctic.
The first focus in the project has been Jan Mayen and Svalbard, but the ambition is to widen the geographic scope of the project to other areas as the approach developed in this project can be applied throughout the Arctic and other areas worldwide to develop targeted approaches tackling marine litter.
- 16:00 FRAM Pollution Observatory: Identifying sinks of marine litter and microplastics in all ecosystem compartments in the Fram Strait area
Authors: Melanie Bergmann ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Gunnar Gerdts ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Lars Gutow ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Ilka Peeken ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Sebastian Primpke ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Mine Tekman ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research )
The global plastic production increased to 335 million t in 2016, and some 10 million t of plastic waste enter the oceans from land and rivers every year. However, global budgets of litter in the oceans currently lag behind this estimate 100 - 1000-fold pointing to unaccounted accumulation areas. To identify hidden sinks and pathways of plastic pollutants we therefore added a pollution observatory to FRAM infrastructure with a goal to sample litter and microplastic in all ecosystem compartments.
Comparison of results from litter surveys at the sea surface with those based on towed camera surveys at the deep seafloor indicates much higher litter quantities on the seefloor stressing that the deep seafloor is the most suitable endpoint for long-term observation. Similarly, deep-sea sediments harbour high concentrations between 40-6500 microplastics per kg sediment, mostly in the small size range (80% ≤ 25 μm). Positive correlations with chlorophyll a concentrations suggest aggregation or other ballasting mechanisms via (ice) algae. Sea ice also contains high quantities, up to ~13,000 microplastics per liter melted snow. it is likely another important sink and a transport vehicle as ice breaks up and drifts south to the Fram Strait, where it releases entrained particle as it melts.
Beach clean-ups by citizen-scientists reveal considerable plastic pollution of Arctic beaches, primarily from fisheries, which entangles local wildlife such as polar bears, seals, birds and reindeer. It points to local sources, which may become increasingly important as more ships operate in the Arctic due to retreating sea ice. However, a significant amount of litter also originates from Europe or yet greater distances (e.g. USA, Brazil, Argentina) and drifts to the north over long distances. Atmospheric transport and fallout may be another pathway, especially for very small microplastic particles. Along with global climate change plastic pollution exerts pressure on fragile Arctic ecosystems.
- 16:00 LITTERBASE: Online Portal for marine litter and microplastics and their Implications for marine life
Authors: Mine Tekman ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Lars Gutow ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Corina Peter ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research ); Melanie Bergmann ( Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research )
Contamination of the oceans with anthropogenic litter is a global environmental problem which currently receives increasing attention by scientists, policy makers, public authorities, media and the general public. Although research efforts have been intensified, they often do not provide stakeholders with easily understandable information about the dimensions and the extent of the problem. We have developed an online portal to provide easily digestible and continuously updated information on marine litter and microplastics to stakeholders based on scientific literature on a global scale. LITTERBASE gives insight about the distribution of marine litter and its effects on marine biota. Data from 1,905 scientific studies (status 26/11/2018) have been compiled into global maps and real-time graphs to make scientific knowledge accessible to the public. Bibliometric data of all publications were entered, as were metadata pertaining to litter type, litter size, litter quantity unit, aquatic system, biome and total litter quantity. Litter quantities were standardised to the most frequently used units to achieve comparability. Data on biological interactions with litter were also extracted: location of field records, number of species affected, percentage of individuals affected, type of interaction, effects on biota, litter type, litter size, aquatic system and biome. Currently, 2,220 species (status 26/11/2018) have been found to interact with marine litter resulting in mortality in almost 12% of the cases reported. Web statistics reveal that the information displayed in the LITTERBASE online portal is continuously being retrieved by users from all over the world.
- 16:00 Effects of terrestrial inputs on seasonal zooplankton community structures and contaminant bioaccumulation in Adventfjord, Svalbard.
Authors: Nathalie Carrasco ( UIT - The Arctic University of Norway, ); Anita Evenset ( Akvaplan-niva / UIT - The Arctic University of Norway, ); Janne Søreide ( Unis - The University Centre in Svalbard, ); Maeve McGovern ( NIVA - Norwegian Institute for Water Research / UIT - The Arctic University of Norway , ); Amanda Poste ( NIVA - Norwegian Institute for Water Research, )
In the perspective of global warming, land-sea interactions in the Arctic are expected to change. Increased temperatures induce the melt of glaciers and thaw of permafrost, and can increase the transport of meltwater and terrestrial material to sea. Rivers feed the sea with nutrients, dissolved organic matter (DOM), suspended particules and contaminants (e.g. mercury and persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs). Terrestrial inputs can thus increase the exposure to contaminants, but can also impact primary production, prey quality and trophic interactions, with implications on the uptake and transfer of contaminants through the food web.
The main aim of this study was to determine the impacts of terrestrial inputs on the dynamics of contaminants in Arctic coastal zooplankton. The study area was Adventfjord where the hydrography is determined by the influx of the West Spitsbergen Current (Atlantic water) and the South Cape Current (Arctic water) as well as local processes such as freshwater inputs from two large rivers in Adventfjord. Secondary objectives included : 1) assessing the impact of terrestrial inputs on physicochemical conditions in the fjord, 2) determining the seasonal development in zooplankton community structure and food-web patterns from spring to autumn, and 3) defining the relationships between seasonal changes in terrestrial inputs, seasonal community structure and contaminant concentrations in zooplankton.
To answer these questions, samples were monthly collected from April to August 2018 from 3 stations from inner toward the outer fjord. In addition to CTD deployments, samples were collected for detailed characterization of water chemistry (including pH, salinity, turbidity, total and dissolved carbon and nutrients, methyl and total mercury) and particulate matter (SPM, carbon and nutrient content, Hg and fatty acid content). Zooplankton samples were collected using a WP2 (200um and 1000um mesh size) for community analysis, fatty acid analysis, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis, and contaminant content (MeHg, TotHg, PCBs). In this poster presentation, we will present our preliminary results.
- 16:00 Beach litter deep dives -a tool for improved understanding of sources and behaviour behind littering
Authors: Jannike Falk-Andersson ( SALT Lofoten ); Wouter Jan Strietman ( Wageningen Economic Research ); Kjersti Busch ( SALT Lofoten ); Benedikte Nashoug Farstad ( SALT Lofoten )
Prevention is the most effective measure against marine litter. Information from current beach litter data is in many cases insufficient to implement targeted management measures to reduce marine litter input to the sea. A methodology named “Beach litter deep dive” has therefore been developed to get a better understanding of the sources and behaviour behind littering. With the use of waste experts, which are people with expert knowledge on the litter, a higher resolution on key litter categories can be obtained. A series of deep dives were organized in Arctic Norway and Svalbard to evaluate the most efficient way of collecting deep dive data. The main source categories were also weighed as current beach litter registrations only count the number of items. Use of waste experts from fisheries enabled identification of items that were lost versus those that were dumped/ and or a result of bad waste management. Analysis of pieces of ropes and nets linked these items to the dominating fisheries taking place in the area and also showed that the majority of these items were dumped. Food- and sanitary items were largely from Norway and Russia, which are also the dominating fisheries nations in the area. The study has illustrated that beach litter deep dives have the potential to provide valuable information on sources and behaviour. Additionally, inclusion of waste experts that are also key stakeholders in the region, has increased their awareness of the problem and motivated measures to reduce littering.
- 16:00 Microplastic ingestion in sexual maturing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
Authors: André S Bogevik ( Nofima AS, Bergen ); Katrin Vorkamp ( Aarhus University ); Erik Burgerhout ( Nofima AS, Tromsø ); Helge Tveiten ( Nofima AS, Tromsø ); Velmurugu Puvanendra ( Nofima AS, Tromsø )
Plastic pollution is an increasing problem in the world’s oceans. Microplastic is defined as particles of plastic less than 5 mm, and could originate from components intentionally manufactured at microscopic size or from plastic debris degraded in the ocean. These particles are ingested either by non-selective filter feeders at lower trophic level, at higher trophic levels through passive feeding or mistaken feeding of microplastics as natural prey or feeding of microplastic contaminated prey.
In the PlastiCod project, sexual maturing farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed two diets, one with the inclusion of 1% microplastic particles and the other without microplastics. The microplastic particles had been placed in the sea (Oslofjord) for 4 months prior the experiment, to obtain realistic conditions, including the potential sorption of organic contaminants. In general, higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were found in the fish feed than in the microplastic particles. The diets were fed to male and female cod in duplicate tanks from early maturation until spawning at Nofima’s Center for Marine Aquaculture in Tromsø, Norway. Biometric data and samples were obtained at the start of the experiment and at three consecutive time points prior to spawning in spring 2018. Whole fish samples of males and females were analyzed for POPs at each time point. Spawning data was collected throughout the spawning season from both groups. From selected spawners of each dietary group eggs were stripped, incubated and the performance of larvae to day 60 post hatch was observed. No major differences were observed in spawning performance, and adult and larval morphometric data between different groups. Preliminary data analysis does not suggest differences in POP levels between the fish groups either. Further, the differential effects of MP in maturing Atlantic cod and their offspring on nutritional, endocrine and gene expression levels are studied. Selected results will be presented at the conference.
- 16:00 The Barents Sea cooler in a warming ocean
Authors: Vidar S. Lien ( Institute of Marine Research ); Øystein Skagseth ( Institute of Marine Research ); Helene Asbjørnsen ( University of Bergen )
The Barents Sea function as a cooling machine that extracts heat from the relative warm Atlantic Inflow before it leaves mainly at depth. Here we investigate the response of the Barents Sea system to the 1.5-2oC warming of the Atlantic Inflow from the 1980s to the period after 2000s, utilizing the annual hydrographic survey data during fall over the period 1970-2017. As expectedly connected to the reduced ice cover there is an increased ocean to air heat loss in the north-eastern Barents Sea, but this does not fully compensate the reduced heat loss upstream. Consequently, the water mass transformation in the Barents Sea has become less vigorous during the warm 2000s. We discuss the associated spatio-temporal hydrographic changes both with respect to the local conditions in the Barents Sea and on the outflowing dense water.
- 16:00 The role of Atlantic heat transport in future Arctic winter sea ice variability and predictability
Authors: Marius Årthun ( University of Bergen ); Lars Henrik Smedsrud ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Tor Eldevik ( Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research )
During recent decades Arctic sea ice variability and retreat during winter have largely been a result of variable ocean heat transport. The relationship between ocean heat and sea ice anomalies has allowed for skillful predictions of winter sea ice extent, especially in the Barents Sea. Here we use the CESM large ensemble simulation to disentangle internally and externally forced winter Arctic sea ice variability, and to assess to what extent future internal sea ice variability is predictably linked to Atlantic heat transport. We find that in a warming world (RCP8.5) interannual to decadal winter sea ice variability is predominately driven by internal variability, whereas external variability is more important for multi-decadal sea ice trends. Ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea is a major source of internal Arctic sea ice variability today and in the future, and, as a consequence, ocean heat transport remains a good predictor of Arctic winter sea ice variability within this century. The future increase in ocean heat transport is carried by warmer water as the current itself is found to weaken. The warmer Atlantic water spreads downstream from the Barents Sea and further into the Arctic Ocean, leading to substantial changes in sea ice thickness.
- 16:00 Arctic marine microbial ecology in the Svalbard polar night
Authors: Martí Amargant-Arumí ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Rolf Gradinger ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
This study investigated the presence and activity of the components of the microbial food web (sepcifically viruses, heterotrophic bacteria and nanoflagellates, and autotrophic Cyanobacteria and pico-nanoflagellates) in the waters around the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) during the polar night period. The study focused on two major questions – are there differences in the community composition in different water masses? And, are there significant changes occurring during the polar night period? Two cruises in January and November 2017 with a total of 11 stations offered the opportunity to test these hypotheses. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell abundances in the uppermost 100m of the water column, and 8 serial dilution experiments were conducted to estimate their growth and grazing rates. All studied organism groups occurred in all samples in low abundances in both January and November. Comparison to the hydrographic regime revealed strong linkages between community structure and hydrography with higher abundances in Atlantic Water samples. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates and autotrophic pico-nanoplankton were markedly less present in January, whereas bacteria and viruses displayed steady concentrations in both months. This supported the hypothesis of succession in the microbial network throughout the polar night, and the possible role of mixotrophy and resting stages are discussed. No significant growth or grazing was detected in the experiments, which could be caused e.g. by low substrate availability and resting strategies. This study demonstrated that all members of the microbial food web organisms persists throughout the polar night in the major water masses around Svalbard. Future studies using alternative approaches are suggested to further study these processes during times of low activity.
- 16:00 Can we detect changes in Arctic ecosystems? (ARISE)
Authors: Camille de la Vega ( Liverpool University ); Sophie Smout ( St Andrews University ); Claire Mahaffy ( Liverpool University ); Alessandro Tagliabue ( Liverpool University ); George Wolff ( Liverpool University ); Jo Hopkins ( Liverpool University ); Raja Ganeshram ( Edinburgh University ); Louisa Norman ( University of Liverpool ); James Grecian ( University of St Andrews ); Jo Kershaw ( University of st Andrews ); Rachel Jeffreys ( Liverpool University ); ( ); ( )
Due to unprecedented rates of environmental change, the Arctic is now a crucible of multiple concurrent stressors. Understanding how food webs are being reshaped over different spatial and temporal scales in response to these stressors is crucial in addressingthe impacts of future change on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Stable isotopes of nitrogen (14N, 15N) and carbon (12C,13C) have the potential to be important food web tracers due to the isotopic discrimination in 15N by ~ 2-5 per mil (‰) and 13C by <1‰ with each trophic transfer. This approach provides quantitative information on trophic position; however, the isotopic signal at each trophic level is sensitive to the 15N and 13C at the base of the food web, termed the ‘isoscape’. This is likely to vary in response to environmental change in the Arctic. Determining the inferred trophic position of an Arctic predator, such as pelagic-feeding sealscould be problematic for two reasons. There may be strong spatio-temporal gradients in the isoscape across the Arctic, and seals may migrate and forage widely so that they are exposed to a variety of isoscapes. The goal of ARISE, a NERC-funded Changing Arctic Ocean project, is to develop a new framework to detect and attribute changes to Arctic food webs during periods of decadal change.Rather than evaluate an entire ecosystem, the ARISE project will take a specific focus on the base of the food web and two species of pelagic-feeding ice-dependent predators, the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus)and the ringed seal(Phoca hispida), which are excellent ‘indicator species’ of food web functioning. Due to their wide Arctic distributions, long-range migrations and thus substantial time spent at sea, as well as flexible foraging patterns, these seals are exposed to multiple stressors across the Arctic region and so are excellent candidates for this study. The project will be underpinned by isoscape modelling, by a seasonally resolved, pan-Arctic fieldwork programme, by the analysis of long time-series seal samples, and also the analysis of harp seal telemetry data from different decades and from the East and West Atlantic. This should allow a pan-Arctic, multi-decadal perspective on the impact of environmental change on Arctic foodwebs.
- 16:00 An evaluation of the relationship between anomalous wind forcing, ocean heat transport and sea ice in a suite of Arctic model simulations
Authors: Morven Muilwijk ( University of Bergen/ Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research ); Mehmet Ilicak ( Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Istanbul Technical University ); Lars Henrik Smedsrud ( University of Bergen/ Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research )
We use a suit of different Arctic Ocean model simulations from the FAMOS (Forum for Arctic Modeling and Observational Synthesis) community to analyze the effect of anomalous wind forcing in the Nordic Seas on poleward ocean heat transport, Atlantic Water transport routes and Arctic sea ice. This study is part of a coordinated modeling experiment, where the goal is to see how different models respond to abrupt ``step'' changes in external forcing fields, and to compute ``Climate Response Functions'' (CRFs). We focus on the sensitivity of Atlantic Water circulation to changes in the wind field in the Greenland Sea in relation to natural forcing variability, as manifested in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).
We find that anomalous strong or weak wind forcing in the Greenland Sea, which is comparable to a strong positive or strong negative NAO index, results in changes of the Atlantic Water flow in not only the Nordic Seas and Eurasian Basin, but also all the way north into the Canadian Arctic and all the way south of the subpolar gyre. In the Barents and Kara Seas there is a linear relationship between the anomalous Atlantic Water inflows resulting from our wind perturbations and the sea ice extent and volume. The models investigated generally agree in behavior, but there is a wide spread in the strength of responses, and also some differences in the timescales and spatial patterns of the responses. This can partly be explained by the different climatological states of the models and partly by differences in Atlantic Water pathways.
- 16:00 Method of the seasonal forecast of the ice extent of the Barents Sea
Authors: Natalia Glok ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute ); Genrikh Alexeev ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute ); Anastasia Vyazilova ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute ); Alexander Smirnov ( Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute )
A close relationship has been established between the temperature of the water entering from the North Atlantic into the Barents Sea and the ice extent in the Barents Sea, which accounts for up to 75% of the inter-annual variability of the monthly ice extent from January to June. In turn, changes in the temperature of incoming Atlantic water are associated with water temperature anomalies in the low latitudes of the North Atlantic. The mechanism of this connection includes the formation of SST anomalies in the low latitudes of the ocean, the enhancement of meridional transfers in the atmosphere and in the Atlantic Ocean. At the output in 2-3 years, there is an increase in winter atmospheric heat transfers through the "Atlantic gates" at 70 ° N. and the flow of Atlantic water into the Barents Sea, which affects the spread of sea ice. The established dependencies served as the basis for the development of the forecast method for ice cover. To separate the climate component in the interannual variability, the EOF decomposition of changes in the ice extent from January to June for 1979-2014 was used. The main component of the decomposition, reflecting 83% of the interannual variability of the ice extent, was compared with the SST anomalies. The relationship and delay between them was estimated, and a regression predictive model was constructed. A comparison of the prognostic and actual values for each of the 6 months showed the accuracy of the predictions with a lead time of 27 to 32 months within 79-83%.
- 16:00 Benthic foraminiferal community of Kongsfjorden: Inter and inner annual changes driven by the environmental parameters
Authors: Olga Kniazeva ( Saint Petersburg State University )
During the last decades, our understanding of how the Arctic ecosystems function during the year has increased notably. However, our knowledge of the seasonal changes occurring in the high-latitude foraminiferal communities, as well as information on what environmental parameters may drive such changes is still limited. Moreover, in the light of the current Atlantification of the Arctic Ocean, the border areas, such as Svalbard, affected by both the Atlantic and the Arctic water masses throughout the year are of particular interest and can be considered as models to give an idea of what changes in the Arctic communities including benthic foraminifera we can expect in the future.
For this study we collected the bottom sediment near the glacier front in Kongsfjorden during various seasons (January, September 2015 and January, June 2016) and probed living foraminiferans with CellTracker Green fluorescent dye. Among the environmental data temperature and salinity were measured with CTD once a season, whereas the sediment data such as organic carbon content and grain size were collected for each station.
Strong input of Atlantic water to the fjord head which happened in 2015 led to the unexpectedly high abundance of living foraminifera that notably decrease in the following year. Almost no shift in the number of species was recorded between two years, however, the species composition showed clear patterns for winter and vegetation periods. Although, the number of living protists did not restore in the late spring, the structure of the community itself came back to the state it was before winter rather rapidly.
Surprisingly, organic carbon content in the sediment did not change significantly between the seasons and did not demonstrate any correlation with the foraminiferal fauna. On the contrary, the sediment grain size varied with the month and turned out to be one of the environmental parameters that drive the shifts in the community. In particular, an increase of coarse fraction on certain stations favoured the emergence of the Islandiella helenae – Labrospira crassimargo assemblage in the sediments strongly affected by the glacial meltwater runoff, despite I. helenae usually inhabiting more distant from the glacier sediments.
The research is supported by the RSCF grant 16-47-02009 and RFBR grant 18-34-00823.
- 16:00 WorldView-3 Satellite Imagery for Mapping Glacier Surfaces in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard
Authors: Sagar F. Wankhede ( National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research ); Shridhar D. Jawak ( Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System ); Alvarinho J. Luis ( National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research ); Manoj Patley ( G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development ); Prashant H. Pandit ( National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Indian Council of Agriculture Research ); Timothy Warjri ( Savitribai Phule Pune University ); ( ); ( )
Glacier facies represent distinct zonations on a glacier, identified due to their specific attributes. The occurrence and distribution of debris on the surface of a glacier influences melt rates owing to its capacity either to act as an insulator under certain conditions or to act as an indicator of the recession of the glacier. These properties coupled with the variability of several facies over the surface of a single glacier promote protean intra-glacier melt rates. This information is vital to the calibration of 3-dimensional mass balance models, as the accurate knowledge of every glacier facies on a glacier will fill out any void site/pixel in the model. Therefore, the extraction of glacier facies, with emphasis on the accuracy is crucial to the origins of 3-dimensional complex modelling. Spatial and spectral resolutions play a key role in their respective capacities in determining the quality of the final extraction. Similar methods however, do not have the same effect across all spectrums of resolutions. This study investigates the capacity of the high-resolution WorldView-3 satellite data, in an effort to map glacier facies across the Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. A thorough preprocessing protocol is devised to extricate noise free spectral information from the data. The extraction of facies in this study occurs through the comparative assessment of pixel and object-based classification techniques. Two pixel-based classifiers namely, (a) Mahalanobis Distance (MHD), and (b) Minimum Distance to Mean (MD), are tested against the thresholded, rule-set-based object-based classification. Application of the object-based domain allowed for the use of several existing spectral indices in the formulation of the rule sets. This domain also provided the opportunity to create a new index from the two near Infrared bands offered by this sensor. This study, in addition to comparing the accuracies achieved from classification of the aforementioned techniques, proposes the new customized spectral index ratio. The object-based classification achieved greater overall accuracy (77.14%) in comparison to the pixel-based classifiers. Future studies will involve refinement of the proposed, as well as addition of new classification techniques.
- 16:00 State of the Arctic sea ice - from a climate perspective
Authors: Signe Aaboe ( Norwegian Meteorological Institute )
The sea ice cover has shown a mean decline for several decades in the Arctic and even in the Antarctic for the last couple of years. The overall decline is a strong indicator of the ongoing changes in the polar regions and is often used in the media as a visible example for climate changes.
In order to monitor the sea ice conditions in the harsh polar regions, the satellite remote sensing has been priceless to get global overviews on a daily basis through both summer and winter. Within the 40 years of passive microwave imaging, the negative trends of Arctic sea ice cover are very clear. Despite larger variabilities, the winter months in 2017/2018 all had record low sea ice extent in the Arctic, whereas the record highs occurred in late 70’s/early 80’s for all 12 months. Not only the extent of sea ice has declined, but also the type of sea ice is changing. The older ice is becoming younger (and thereby thinner) and the areal coverage of the older ice is diminishing, making the remaining sea ice much more vulnerable for further break-ups and melting.
Since early 2000, several European collaborations - among others the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI), and the EU Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) - have resulted in quality-assured and consistent sea ice products from satellite observations including both operational near-real-time production and long reprocessed climate data records. State of the Arctic sea ice and trends in its extent, the ice types and the behaviour of the ice will here be presented based on these freely available products.
- 16:00 Zooplankton seasonal dynamics and the importance of Pseudocalanus spp. in Svalbard coastal waters
Authors: Margot Nyeggen ( UNIS ); Janne Søreide ( UNIS ); Dag Aksnes ( University of Bergen )
The fjords in Svalbard are influenced by both Arctic and Atlantic water, where the distribution of the water masses change depending on location and the time of the year. Due to higher influence of Atlantic water, the west coast of Svalbard is relatively mild and ice-free year-round, while the east coast generally has a colder climate and seasonal ice cover.
Zooplankton is an important component of the Arctic food web, being the key link between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Copepods are generally dominating in the zooplankton communities. While most studies of Arctic marine zooplankton have been done on the larger copepod species, the smaller but often more abundant genera remain relatively poorly studied. Some of these are the calanoid copepods of the genus Pseudocalanus. Thought to be an important taxon in the Arctic ecosystem, much remain unknown in terms of their species distributions and biology. It is hypothesised that the three species Pseudocalanus acuspes, P. minutus and P. moultoni co-exist in Svalbard waters, but have different timing of reproduction.
To study the seasonal zooplankton community development and the importance of Pseudocalanus in the Arctic, Adventfjorden on the west coast of Svalbard was sampled monthly from March to September 2018. Furthermore, the seasonally ice-covered fjords Agardhbukta and Inglefieldbukta on the east coast and Van Mijenfjorden on the west coast were sampled in spring, with the aim of describing the importance of sea ice for shaping the zooplankton communities. Besides sea ice, the hydrography was recorded, as well as the food availability in terms of chlorophyll a biomass. Zooplankton was sampled by a WP2 net with 60 μm mesh and specimens were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The life history of Pseudocalanus spp. were studied by identifying the population structure of the genus and to genetically identify adult females to species level when present.
Regarding copepod species composition, preliminary results from Adventfjorden indicate a numerical dominance of Oithona spp., followed by Pseudocalanus spp., with the reversed dominance order in the seasonally ice-covered Agardhbukta. Stage composition of Pseudocalanus spp. indicate two main peaks in adult female abundance: one small in spring, followed by one larger in autumn. Ongoing molecular analyses will confirm if this is due to species specific difference in timing of reproduction or not. This study provides important baseline-knowledge on zooplankton seasonal dynamics which is of importance to identify potential changes in a rapidly changing Arctic.
- 16:00 Seasonal activity of sympagic meiofauna in a high-Arctic fjord
Authors: Vanessa Pitusi ( Universitetet i Tromsø ); Rolf Gradinger ( University in Tromsø ); Miriam Marquardt ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Janne Søreide ( University Centre in Svalbard )
Sea ice offers a unique habitat to pelagic and benthic organisms, and their larvae. This sympagic (“ice-associated”) fauna colonizes the brine channels, which form during the formation of sea ice when salt is rejected from the freshwater lattice. Microscopic ice algae grow within the brine channels and provide an early nutritious food source to sympagic and pelagic fauna after a dark and relatively unproductive winter.
Although sea ice is such a vital component of the Arctic marine ecosystem, little work has been conducted on seasonal landfast ice. Studies on the faunal assemblages inhabiting seasonal sea ice are urgently needed in order to assess the importance of sea ice as a nursery ground in coastal marine Arctic ecosystems, especially in the light of the changing sea ice conditions in the Arctic due to anthropogenic and natural climate change.Svalbard has experienced the greatest temperature increase over the past three decades, of all Arctic regions, which has led to warmer winter temperatures and a loss in first year ice extend, especially in winter. Increased input of warm Atlantic Water is leading to the inhibition of sea ice formation in winter, which is evident in the loss of sea ice in Isfjorden and Van Mijenfjorden.
This study investigates the seasonal development and community composition of sympagic meiofauna along a depth transect in Van Mijenfjorden (77°N, 15/16°W), Svalbard. This investigation is based on data collected in 2015 and aims to contribute towards the establishment of a broader database on sea ice ecology in the European Arctic, which is poor to this date. Through the collection of ice cores from seasonal landfast ice, total metazoan abundance and ice algal biomass was determined in Van Mijenfjorden throughout spring 2017. In addition to core samples, 20 μm zooplankton net samples were collected to assess the strength of sympagic-pelagic coupling in the fjord.
Of all taxa found in the ice, nematodes and polychaetes tend to dominate numerically. Although these taxa are numerous, little is known about their ecology and which species inhabit the sea ice. This thesis attempts to identify nematodes and polychaetes to the lowest level possible through the use of molecular tools. Additionally, growth experiments were used to mimic polychaete larval growth under various natural conditions to see whether differences in food availability had an impact on size increase.
- 16:00 Developing and establishing an Arctic Safety Centre in Longyearbyen in Svalbard
Authors: Ann Christin Auestad ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Hanne Hvitdfeldt Christiansen ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Fred Skancke Hansen ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Martin Indreiten ( University Centre in Svalbard ); Eirik Albrechtsen ( NTNU ); Eirik Albrechtsen ( NTNU ); Are Kristoffer Sydnes ( UiT Norges Arktiske Universitet ); Hrefna Gunnarsdottir ( University Centre in Svalbard )
The natural environment of the Arctic is undergoing a rapid change, while at the same time the interest in geo-political presence and economic development in the region has never been greater. As a consequence the need to strengthen competencies to operate in a safe and environmentally best way in the Arctic is acute and extremely relevant. As a response to this the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) has taken the initiative to develop an Arctic Safety Centre (ASC) together with several national and international partners. This has been possible as the ASC obtained funding from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Arctic 2030 program for the period 2017 to 2019.
The mission of ASC is to contribute to safe and sustainable human activity in the Arctic through research, education and outreach. ASC’s main activity has been to develop a comprehensive university level research-based educational program on Arctic safety. ASC is furthermore responsible for facilitating a conference on Arctic safety which will be held in Longyearbyen in May 2019. Other activities have included the collaboration of local experts, authorities and companies who have developed an innovative, local observations network for improved snow avalanche observation. ASC has also offered one of the first field safety courses for field station leaders, which was developed in close collaboration with the EU project INTERACT.
In summer 2018, the first course of the ASC, the pilot course AS-301 ‘Risk assessment of Natural Arctic Hazards’ was run. In addition to the pilot course, the following master courses will be offered in fall 2019 when ASC formally starts its operations: AS-302 Risk, Technology and Human Performance in Arctic Operations; AS-303 Safety Management in the Arctic and; AS-304 Emergency preparedness and response in the Arctic. The course offer is interdisciplinary, targeting not only natural science students, but also students from engineering, social sciences and law from Norwegian and international universities. The Centre’s location in Svalbard allows it to draw from local expertise including UNIS’s more than 20 years’ experience with Arctic Safety and meet the increased need from national and international partners for specialized Arctic safety training. The center is partner in several research projects regarding Arctic safety and plays a vital role in building awareness of safety in several different ways in the society of Longyearbyen. The center organizes open seminars on different Arctic safety topics from avalanches to polar bear safety to a very dynamic population.
- 16:00 Fish production in Arctic food webs: Are cod more productive than polar cod?
A comparison of P/B ratio and production of cod and polar cod in the Barents Sea.
Authors: Evgeniia Raskhozheva ( Murmansk Marine Biological Institute Kola Scientific Centre Russian Academy of Sciences )
Production and production-to-biomass ratio (P/B ratio) are a quantitative base of energy flow and channeling of matter from lower to higher trophic levels and thus constitute key parameters of marine ecosystem functioning. The goal this study is to compare productional characteristics of two important species in Arctic food webs such as cod Gadus morhua and polar cod Boreogadus saida. Annual production is estimated by the Increment Summation Method using original and available published data on abundance, biomass, fecundity, size-at-age and sex structure in the Barents Sea in 1934–2013. Generative production is equal to the mature females and males gonads weight. The P/B ratio is calculated for each age group of the sample in 1000 number and then is averaged for the whole population. In order to estimate total production P/B ratio is multiplied by the mean cohort biomass from ICES AFWG Report. Polar cod has not only higher P/B ratio (0.63–1.10) but also the ratio of generative and somatic production is greater (Pg/Ps 0.1–1.2) than those cod has (P/B ratio 0.38–0.58, Pg/Ps 0.1–0.6). Polar cod shows a significant increase in P/B ratio over the period 1969–2004, but also a significant decline in 2005–2008 and 2013. Cod shows no apparent trends in P/B ratio. But it should be noted that P/B ratio of cod was lower in 1934–1938 and 1946–1950 (in average 0.42) than in 1951–2006 (in average 0.50). Total production of commercial part of cod population ranges from 0.4 to 2.0 million tonnes and varies 0.1–2.2 million tonnes for polar cod.
In the presentation P/B ratio variability is discussed and is suggested that this change should be attributed not only to the loss of large individuals due to fishing but also may be a result of a shift in a size-age structure in response to environmental influence on fish biological processes. A warmer Arctic is likely to have impacts on increasing energy flow through polar cod. Why there is not a relationship with a turnover rate of cod?
- 16:00 Algal pigments in sediments of four Spitsbergen fjords as biomarkers of environmental conditions
Authors: Magdalena Krajewska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Małgorzata Szymczak- Żyła ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences ); Grażyna Kowalewska ( Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences )
This work presents pigment (chloropigments-a, -b, chlorophylls-c and carotenoids) distribution in sediments of four Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway) fjords: Hornsund, Kongsfjorden, Adventfjorden and Raudfjorden in relation to environmental conditions. Kongsfjorden is under the influence of four, while Hornsund - of fourteen glaciers. On the other side, to Kongsfjorden inflow warm Atlantic waters (West Spitsbergen Current) and to Hornsund both the warm Atlantic waters (West Spitsbergen Current) and the cold Arctic waters (Sørkapp Current). Adventfjorden is a part of Isfjorden, located near main city of Svalbard - Longyearbyen. Adventfjorden, like whole Isfjorden, is influenced by two large rivers: Adventelva and Longyearelva, which are fed by meltwater from glaciers. During winter fjord covers one-year ice layer and the inflow of material from the land ceases. Raudfjorden is located on the north-west coast of Spitsbergen. This fjord is so far the least studied of all of the examined in this work basins. At present, the highest temperature increase in the world is observed in Arctic, which causes faster glacier and snow cover melting. This freshwater has a direct impact on the fjord ecosystems. The aim of this work was to compare primary production, phytoplankton taxonomy, sources of organic matter and changes in environmental conditions in four Spitsbergen fjords located from 76°56.165’N to 79°48.354’N based on pigments in recent sediments. The sediments (20 – 29 cm) were taken with the core sampler during cruise of r.v. ’Oceania’, in July and August 2017. The cores were sliced into 1 cm layers and frozen (-20°C) on board immediately after collection. Pigments were analysed using HPLC-DAD/FL. Additionally, grain size distribution, carbon and nitrogen content, Pb210 and Cs137 were done, to recognize characteristics and age of sediments. Results indicate that primary production is highest in Raudfjorden and/or conditions there were more favourable for pigment preservation in sediments. Zooplankton grazing influence organic matter decomposition mainly in Hornsund. The best oxygen conditions were in Adventfjorden. Diatoms, dinoflagellates and haptophytes constitute the majority of plant biomass in the studied fjords with dominance of diatoms in Adventfjorden. Organic matter has different origin in the studied fjords, with predominance of marine origin material in Kongsfjorden and Raudfjorden, terrigenous in Adventfjorden and mixed - marine and terrigenous, in Hornsund.
This research was partly financed within the framework of grant No. 2016/21/N/ST10/03240 from the National Science Centre in Poland.
- 16:00 Sympagic meiofauna diversity and community structure in eastern Svalbard
Authors: Magnus Heide Andreasen ( The University Centre in Svalbard )
Diminishing sea ice cover rises direct challenges to marine life that relies on sea ice as nursery, feeding or hunting grounds. Due to the size restriction of the mosaic of brine channels inside sea ice, most ice-associated (sympagic) fauna in land-fast sea ice is size-characterized as meiofauna (20-500 μm). Little is known about the biodiversity and community composition of sympagic meiofauna in Svalbard’s coastal regions, and thus also the role of sea ice as a habitat for these tiny organisms, i.e. mainly larvae of benthic invertebrates.
In this study, we investigate the community composition and distribution of sympagic meiofauna in two fjords in eastern Svalbard. Besides ice core samples, we also study the distribution of meiofauna in the water column to determine whether these larvae rely on the sea ice as a habitat or not. Three sampling campaigns in spring 2018 were conducted. Ice cores were sectioned to examine vertical abundance in sympagic meiofauna and chlorophyll a concentration, and to determine the physical environment of the ice, i.e. salinity, temperature and brine volume. Measures of water column temperature, salinity, depth and irradiation along with ice thickness, snow depth and freeboard gave insight into the physical environment. To ensure accurate identification of juvenile stages of nematodes and polychaetes, visual identification is supported by molecular barcoding. In addition, length measurements of identified juveniles were conducted to provide more insight into these species’ life history strategies.
This study provides important baseline information on the abiotic and biotic sea ice environment in eastern Svalbard. The ice diatom Melosira arctica was recorded in land-fast sea ice here for the first time in Svalbard, suggesting that eastern Svalbard can serve as a suitable model area for monitoring the response to the diminishing sea ice in even more inaccessible parts of the high Arctic.
- 16:00 Arctic Soil response to summer and winter climate extreme
Authors: Maki Miura ( Bangor University ); Davey Jones ( Bangor University ); Paul Hill ( Bangor Universty ); Timothy Jones ( Bangor University )
The Arctic is warming at a faster rate than other latitudes, especially in winter. Increasing temperatures are likely to significantly impact on terrestrial carbon cycling processes associated with plants and soil microbial communities. Although the magnitude of warming in the Arctic is well modelled, the potentials feedbacks of Arctic soils to the atmosphere are not well understood. To better understand the response of Arctic soils to climate change, we simulated Arctic summer and winter (frozen and non-frozen) conditions and measured gaseous carbon emissions and dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations. Two soil types were tested; dry heath dominated by Saxifrage and peat dominated by Sphagnum, using soil cores collected from Svalbard. Overall, we found that winter warming induced strong biophysical changes in soil-plant carbon cycling. The results will be discussed at the conference.
- 16:00 The Effects of Climate Forcing on the Goods and Services of the Russian Arctic Large Marine Ecosystems and the Current Challenges of Operational Oceanography
Authors: Gennady Matishov ( MMBI KSC RAS/ SSC RAS )
Increased attention is being focused on the Russian Arctic LMEs. In a global climate change scenario, the potential for year-round navigation may open the door to intensive development of natural and living resources in the Arctic and in particular hydrocarbon extraction on the Barents Sea LME shelf and in the Kara Sea LME. In this respect the ecosystem approach to management of resources, goods, and services becomes crucial. Arctic research on an LME basis reveals regularities in seasonal processes and a wide range of ice conditions. MMBI and SSC RAS have significantly augmented the database on species composition and population density in the Russian Arctic LMEs. Marine species diversity and productivity are higher than previously supposed. Overfishing has already led to species diversity, biomass, fish length and age changes in practically all Arctic LMEs engaged in commercial fishing. The distribution of sea birds and marine mammals is tightly connected with LME productivity levels. The sea ice on which some marine mammals depend for their habitat and migration areas has extended or narrowed according to long-term climatic changes. In general the Arctic LMEs are slightly contaminated in comparison with other parts of the world’s oceans. While radioactive contamination risk is a specific Arctic issue, chemical and radioactive contaminations do not appear to be leading factors regulating marine ecosystems. Areas adjacent to the Arctic LMEs are generally characterized by a low population density and uneven distribution. The basis of economic development is either marine resources or continental industry. In this respect operational oceanography becomes also significant, as it covers the entire range of hydro-physical and hydro-acoustical phenomena and stratification complexities of oceanosphere, and its outcomes and goods are used when dealing with dangerous natural phenomena. Neither satellites nor prognostic models can measure substances’ and energy flows, nor can consider stratification of water layers of 5 km and deeper, nor boast of regular character. Reliability of a prognostic model should be based on data accuracy (hence the importance of databases and monitoring network, which is underdeveloped over the Arctic Circle), correctness of mathematic description of the considered processes, the number of actual natural phenomena the model considers. Arctic research results will be further analyzed for the economic-social benefits.
Tuesday 22nd January 2019
16:00 - 19:00