Aquaculture in the high north in times of change - Future Food and Feed from Marine Sources Part 1
- 09:10 FEATURED TALK: Future Food and Feed from Marine Sources
Authors: Bente E. Torstensen ( Nofima )
Global demand for food increase with increasing world population, and modern aquaculture is part of the solution for global food security. Today, fish and seafood account for less than 10% of the global protein sources produced. This stands in contrast to that 70% of the earth is oceans. Seafood is a source of protein, but in addition seafood contribute with essential minerals, vitamins and omega-3 lipids necessary for good human health. Thus, we need to explore increased use of known and new sources of food and feed ingredients to meet future demand for safe and nutritious seafood.
Growth in food from marine sources require full flexibility in choice of feed ingredients to meet increasing feed volume demand. To meet this challenge, we need knowledge on nutrient requirements, raw material properties and feed technology.
Traditionally, farmed Atlantic salmon protein, energy and essential nutrient requirements were met by using fish meal and fish oil as the main feed ingredients. However, these are resources with a stable (at best) and limited supply. In aquaculture of Atlantic salmon the need for increased feed and feed ingredients have so far been met by replacing fish meal and fish oil with plant proteins and lipids. This has been possible through research on nutrient requirements and feed technology, and developing ingredients to meet these requirements. However, to meet the increasing feed demand for future aquaculture new sources of proteins, energy, and essential nutrients including marine omega-3 lipids is required.
Atlantic salmon is a good source of omega-3, and this is maintained when feed ingredients change since salmon have their own minimum requirements of marine omega-3 fatty acids to ensure good growth, health and product quality. The omega-3 lipids in fish feed have traditionally been supplied by fish oil produced from pelagic species such as anchoveta, herring and menhaden. The supply of omega-3 from fish oil will not be able to meet future demand, and therefore we need to look beyond the traditional omega-3 sources and develop new plant and animal sources. Today, marine micro- and macroalgae, mesopelagic fish species, insects, GM oils, and PAPs are only some examples of developments towards future food and feed from marine sources.
- 09:40 Kelp cultivation above the Arctic Circle
Authors: Sanna Matsson ( Akvaplan-niva ); Anna Metaxas ( Dalhousie University ); Bodil Bluhm ( University of Tromsø ); Hartvig Christie ( NIVA ); Reinhold Fieler ( Akvaplan-niva ); Silje Forbord ( SINTEF/NTNU ); Aleksander Handå ( SINTEF Ocean )
In the future, there will be an increased demand for human food, animal feed and biofuels as well as a need for new cultivation areas. Kelp cultivation offers a potential for all three products, without needing fresh water, land areas and fertilizers. At the same time, kelps have one of the highest growth rates in the world. The MACROSEA project is a Norwegian Research Council-funded 4-year project designed to build a knowledge platform for industrial macroalgae cultivation in Norway that is combining biology, technology and modelling tasks. As part of the MACROSEA project, we have been collaborating with local kelp farmers to explore the potential for Saccharina latissima cultivation along the Norwegian coast at a total of ten sites from 58 °N to 69 °N. We used local genetic material pre-cultivated at the same lab, transferred to all study sites at the same time and cultivated in similar rig set-ups in the sea. Here growth and biofouling were quantified each 2nd to 3rd week throughout the whole growth season of 2017. S. latissima produced highest biomass furthest north due to a combination of later settlement of biofouling organisms settling or grazing on the biomass and good growth conditions. The preliminary results from this co-operation show that there is a good prospect for biomass production along the Norwegian coast, with an extended growth season north of the Arctic Circle.
- 09:55 Aquaculture in the context of global food security -- what to feed the fish?
Authors: Erik-Jan Lock ( NIFES ); Rune Waagebø ( NIFES ); Livar Frøyland ( NIFES ); Gro-Ingunn Hemre ( NIFES )
World per capita fish supply continues to increase due to vigorous growth in aquaculture, which now provides half of all fish for human consumption (FAO 2016). Aquaculture will likely play an even more important role in providing food security and adequate nutrition for the growing global population. To facilitate this growth, aquafeed producers require increasingly more raw materials. In salmon farming the inclusion of fishmeal and fish oil per kilogram of aquafeed has decreased dramatically over the past decades and now the majority of the diet is from plant-based sources. Whilst this is a positive development when it comes to the amount of wild fish needed to produce farmed salmon, it has shifted the dependence of salmon farming from marine fish stocks to terrestrial production and hence competing with food producing industries for arable land. Moreover, the dietary content of specific micronutrients required by marine fish and most often found in the marine food chain have reduced. New nutritious feed ingredients that do not compete with already limited resources are required in order to grow the aquaculture industry sustainably. We will discuss feed ingredients that can come from fisheries, e.g. use of by-catch, slaughterhouse waste, krill and zooplankton; or from novel farming methods, e.g. insects, yeast, seaweed and microalgae. These resources either harvest biomass at a lower trophic level or make better use of waste streams in existing production chains. The latter is referred to as ‘upcycling’ of nutrients and is a central part of the circular economy. When placing aquaculture in the context of global food security, it is important to consider the whole production chain, from the raw materials to the composition of the fish fillet. Whilst fish have the ability to very efficiently refine feed resources into a highly nutritious food resource, the contribution of aquaculture to global food security will largely be determined by the sourcing of the feed raw materials.
- 10:10 FEATURED TALK: Future Food and Feed from Microalgae
Authors: Rene Wijffels ( Nord University & Wageningen University ); Chris Hulatt ( Wageningen University & Colorado School of Mines ); Mette Sørensen ( Wageningen University ); Viswanath Kiron ( Wageningen University )
Currently fish feeds rely on marine proteins and oils of animal origin. The dependence on these sources is not sustainable as these ingredients are also human food sources. Hence it is important to identify new ingredients, preferably from non-conventional aquatic sources, as potential components for feed.
Microalgae are single-cell factories that offer excellent opportunities for producing fish feed ingredients. Currently we are summarizing results from several experiments testing defatted marine micro algal species, biomass from bio-refineries, in feed for Atlantic salmon. The results are promising.
Yet there remain a number of technical challenges for their widespread commercial implementation. At present, relatively few species of microalgae have been studied for large scale biomass production. We present our on-going studies illustrating the potential value of cold-adapted species of polar microalgae for biotechnology, including synthesis of novel products and potential for increased growth rates under cold-climate conditions. In our first experiments, extremophilic Arctic microalgae were tested to establish whether satisfactory growth and lipid production could be obtained at very low water temperature.
The maximum productivity reached was comparable to mesophilic strains and lipid content up to 39% was attained with the snow alga Chlamydomonas pulsatilla. The neutral lipids of each species were comprised by a large proportion of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may find applications in industrial production. Overall, the results indicate that selection of varieties of microalgae from polar environments may provide great opportunities.
Wednesday 24th January 2018
09:10 - 10:40