The future of Governance and handling Vulnerability in Arctic Ecosystems
- 11:00 Globalization or climate change: Trends in human activities across the Arctic over the past decade
Authors: Claire Runge ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway ); Per Fauchald ( NINA ); Vera Hausner ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
The Arctic is undoubtedly changing. Here, we present trends in human activities in the Arctic across the past decade. We quantified recent trends in Arctic tourism, resource extraction, shipping, fishing and subsistence activities at sub-national scale, collating the most comprehensive and high resolution dataset of government and industry statistics to date. We find that, far from experiencing a universal boom, change in the Arctic has been highly localised. After a post-2008 recovery, many industries have remained relatively static overall, though tourism is a well-known exception. Cruise tourism grew rapidly in Norway and Iceland from 2007 to 2012, and continues to grow in Iceland and Svalbard. Although relatively few international cruise tourists visit the Russian and Canadian Arctic, numbers have increased exponentially in the last few years, driven in part by their attractiveness to high-end travellers as the final Arctic frontier. International tourism to the Arctic has also been growing in all areas, with the exception of parts of Russia, consistent with a rise in international tourism globally. Arctic industries and activities show contrasting and complex regional trends. For instance, despite decreasing sea ice, overall shipping traffic in the Arctic decreased between 2012 and 2017. The cause for this decrease is unclear, but seems to be largely driven by a decrease in the volume of goods transported to Arctic ports by sea in the industrialised areas of northern Norway and Murmansk. Surprisingly, though in general Arctic communities are becoming less reliant on subsistence activities and overall Arctic hunting catch has declined, the number of licensed hunters has recently increased in Alaska and parts of northern Scandinavia. Fishing catch and resource extraction have also experienced regional fluctuations. Recent change has been driven by a combination of global socioeconomic change and Arctic governmental policy, and climate change is yet to show a significant influence on Arctic industries.
- 11:15 Governing security in the Arctic -- challenging perspectives from a changing ocean system
Authors: Pauline Pic ( Université Laval )
Two main challenges can characterize security and its governance in the Arctic: climate change and globalization. We can then decline them into a threefold perspective. First, as Climate change related issues have entered the international political agenda, they have been politicised. But as they are also at the heart of international forum and treaties, and likely to create tensions, we can also consider that as such, they have been securitized. Second, those changes have catalyzed a globalisation of the region, which is now getting more and more integrated into global networks, whether we consider maritime roads, the development of mines and hydrocarbon exploitation, or a general economic development of the region. Those developments are quite slow and remain limited as of now, however, they still indicate a progressive integration of the region into global economic networks: many different actors are taking an interest in the region. Third, finally, there is a striking contrast between national sovereignty stakes and those developments above mentioned, who do not know any official boundaries.
The ocean system faces significant changes both on the environmental and social dimension. As such, it questions the structures of the governance of security in the Arctic: how is it structured, and around which priorities? This work wants to analyze security policies and treaties from countries around the Arctic ocean in order to understand how they apprehend the changing Arctic. A special attention will be given to scale: are policies focusing on small scale issues or rather traditional and larger scale ones? Drawing on the work of R. Cox and W. Greaves, this works questions the referent object of the structure of security governance in the Arctic: after a survey of security issues in the region, it argues that environmental change questions the cooperative paradigm around which the governance of the region has been built. The question is then how to design security policies in a more efficient manner, taking into account the very specific challenges that the region is currently facing.
- 11:30 Combining Earth observations and statistics for evidence-based policy making in polar region
Authors: Bente Lilja Bye ( BLB ); Bente Lilja Bente ( BLB ); Torill Hamre ( NERSC ); Markus Fiebig ( NILU ); Per Gunnar Auran ( SINTEF ); Jovanka Gulicoska ( Viderum ); Ståle Walderhaug ( SINTEF )
Looking at climate change, development of activities like fishing, shipping, tourism etc together with the history of policies in the polar region in and around Svalbard applying an holistic approach, can result in new information that will help us make better decisions for the Arctic area in the future.
3 different H2020 projects INTAROS, NextGEOSS, and DataBio join forces to provide new information using the latest in big data and cloud technology, access to Copernicus data and services, and user requirements from social scientists. Through analysis of different types of met-ocean data ((e.g. ice edge, SST) and fishery statistics to investigate potential links between climate change and activity in the polar region in and around Svalbard. We evaluate if the FAIR principles are met for the chosen variables, using Copernicus, BarentsWatch and other open data resources. Accessibility and functionality of the related APIs will be assessed, and whether the chosen APIs can jointly provide new information.
We will also present how one can combine available information from existing sources, such as catch reports, oceanographic measurements, oceanographic simulations, stock simulations and stock observations, can be used for improving assessment of fish stocks and their distribution. Part of these data will be derived from remote sensing, while others will be collected using vessels equipped with appropriate sensors and communication and communication tools.
Together this combinations of data will provide new information that will be useful for policy making in polar regions and that take into account the different sectors and actors involved.
Wednesday 23rd January 2019
11:00 - 12:00