Resilient Arctic societies and industrial development - New Governance Structures in the Arctic
- 13:00 FEATURED TALK: Advancing the governance system for Arctic shipping: role of the Arctic Council in facilitating institutional interplay
Authors: Piotr Graczyk ( UiT The Arctic University of Norway )
Negotiations on the binding International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) adopted in 2014/2015 by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) revealed a network of various institutions and actors interested in regulating shipping activities in Arctic waters. The Arctic Council (AC) has significantly stepped up its role in governing shipping activities in the Arctic, primarily through the follow-up actions on the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) recommendations. This presentation examines the key interplay mechanisms between different levels of the governance system of shipping in the Arctic, primarily between AC and IMO. The objective is to explore the AC’s institutional impact on Arctic shipping governance through the analysis of its role, which is conceptualised through institutional tasks, functions and “pathways of influence”. In a three-step analysis the presentation addresses relevant AC’s functions and measures at its disposal applicable to Arctic shipping. Firstly, it defines AC’s position within the system and summarises its relevant work pertaining to shipping such as already undertaken initiatives. Secondly, it identifies areas in which AC may have impact on regulations on both national and international levels. Thirdly, the presentation explores the mechanisms of interaction between AC and IMO and other international institutions. Three distinct channels for interplay are analysed to systematically specify principal “pathways of influence” through which AC may sway the shipping governance system in the Arctic. The focus is not, however, on areas on which the impact may be exerted as these have been identified by others (e.g. Stokke 2013), but rather on definite mechanisms and instruments at the disposal of the Arctic states to be used through AC. In that sense, AC is seen as a tool in international diplomacy, negotiations and policy-making and an instrument of influence on individual members. The study uses cases from actual work of the AC’s working groups, the Norway’s involvement in both within AC and IMO as well as bodies such as the newly established Arctic Marine Shipping Best Practices Information Forum. The latter case is further an example of shipping industry (including insurance business) involvement in decision-shaping procedures and their own interest in development of new international bodies. In particular, the AC’s work on coordinating international regulatory and policy activities related to Arctic shipping and efforts to incorporate perspectives from a broad range of actors, such as indigenous peoples, NGOs, IGOs and industry are central for this presentation.
- 13:30 Governance and norm dynamics in the Arctic: an assessment of the role of the United Nations
Authors: Cécile Marie Lucie Pelaudeix ( Aarhus University )
In the context of the analysis of transnational norm dynamics and their impact on institutional change, the proposed paper looks into the role of the United Nations in shaping norms impacting the development of economic activities in the Arctic region. The academic literature has focused on instruments like the UNCLOS or the UNDRIP, but the role of the UN as an international organization has not been examined in the context of the governance of the region, the main focus being on the primary intergovernmental body, the Arctic Council. Not only a recent decision of the Supreme Court in Canada about the respect of UNDRIP principles in the development of offshore activities stands as an important decision, but many other instruments have contributed to shape norms applying to the Arctic. Soft instruments include important declarations such as – the Stockholm Declaration (1972), the Rio Declaration (1992), the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development (2002), the UNDRIP (2007), the Rio +20 Declaration (2012). Hard Instruments include the UNCLOS, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Framework Climate Convention (UNFCCC) - with their relation to the Rio Conference in 1992 and its declaration. Furthermore, the UN has also launched two new instruments which have a potential to impact the Arctic: the under-discussion binding Convention on Biodiversity Beyond National Borders, and the recently adopted non-binding Sustainable Development Goals. The paper first adopts a historical approach to introduce to the negotiations of some of these major UN instruments. The paper then takes a more critical view to put in perspective the UNCLOS and the UNDRIP, compare some of their – potentially conflicting – provisions, in particular with regard to sovereignty - and then analyses the ways Arctic actors maneuver at various levels of governance, from regional to local, with the interpretation and implementation of the global instruments’ provisions. The paper then concludes on the extent to which the UN has so far contributed to shape the institutional framework governing the future of the region.
Cécile Pelaudeix, Associate Professor, Aarhus University, Department of Law.
Bartholins Allé 16, Building 1411, Office 152
8000, Aarhus C
T: +45 60 52 46 10
- 13:45 Growing resilient arctic societies through strategic partnerships
Authors: Karen Barnes ( Yukon College ); Bronwyn Hancock ( Yukon College ); Shelagh Rowles ( Yukon College ); Tosh Southwick ( Yukon College ); Michael Hale ( Yukon College )
Drawing on examples across Yukon, this paper focuses on the social and economic changes occurring in this northern Canadian territory over the past decades, despite continuous booms and busts within the mine industry. Yukon College and its partners in industry and First Nation governments are now working together to support the resilient communities of Yukon through these cycles using innovative programming and new partnerships. Federal and territorial investments jointly support these initiatives.
In the early 1990s the last thriving mines in Yukon closed. The impact was felt across the territory. Population decreased and unemployment rose. Particularly hard hit were those from the 14 Yukon First Nations who chose to remain in their traditional territories. At same time, many Yukon First Nations were in the final stages of settling their land claims and self-government agreements with Canada and the Yukon. In 1993, four of the first agreements were signed. By 2005, 11 of Yukon’s 14 First Nations had signed agreements.
During an industry contraction and the economic downturn in the Yukon in the 1990s, Yukon College evolved from being solely a vocational school serving industry to broadening its programming into professional degrees and research. Although student enrollment dropped, this new programming meant that the College continued to serve Yukoners with entry level career programs, university transfer and two degrees. In 2009, the economy in the Yukon began to improve. Mining exploration reached an all-time high in 2011. With this exploration came jobs, with opportunities from entry labour positions to highly skilled professional roles. Importantly, First Nations governments in the Yukon also had a much stronger voice in mine permitting and development. Concurrently, Yukon College recognized the need to take a stronger role in the territory’s resilience, and reached out to its partners in government and First Nations to co-design a new entity that would not only begin training for the needs of industry, but would establish a collaboration that would ensure that training, education and research would continue through the next contraction. This became the Centre for Northern Innovation in Mining and the Yukon Research Centre at Yukon College.
This paper will describe how this different context is working by providing examples of innovative projects built from these new partnerships. Presenters come from various areas of Yukon College including senior leaders from the Yukon Research Centre, Centre for Northern Innovation in Mining, First Nations Initiatives, and Community Innovation and Development.
- 14:00 Building corporate trust and credibility in a politicized resource region: The story of the oil company North Energy
Authors: Vegar Lunde Hafnor ( University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway ); Peter Arbo ( University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway )
New extractive industries entering the Arctic often face strong expectations of creating ripple effects and contributing to local and regional development. To acquire a social license to operate, the companies have to demonstrate that they are concerned with the environmental and social aspects of their industrial activities, and not just their own profits. The major oil companies have long experience in dealing with such conflicting considerations as they move into new petroleum provinces. Nevertheless, oil and gas exploration and exploitation in the Arctic are becoming increasingly controversial.
In this paper, we analyze the oil company North Energy, which was established in 2007 by regional entrepreneurs who aimed to create a fully North Norwegian petroleum company. We present the story of North Energy and explore the attempts to build corporate trust and credibility in a politicized resource region. How did the regional oil company define its identity and role? How did it seek to balance the expectations of being both a professional company and a community builder? The paper shows the ways in which North Energy endeavored to be a different oil company, rooted in the region, but at the same time serving as a door opener for the petroleum industry in the north. This double track did not succeed, and we summarize important lessons from the case of North Energy.
Tuesday 23rd January 2018
13:00 - 14:30