- 08:30 The human dimension: how social and behavioural research can help address marine litter
Authors: Sabine Pahl ( University of Plymouth )
The accumulation of marine litter in the natural environment is entirely the consequence of human decisions, behaviours and existing socio-technical systems of consumption (Pahl et al., 2017). This presentation argues that we need to understand this human dimension in order to reduce marine litter at macro- and micro-levels (Pahl & Wyles, 2016). Only through applying insights and research methods from the Social and Behavioural Sciences, alongside the natural and technical sciences, will we be able to identify effective solutions to the issue. Drawing on a range of studies on microplastics, marine litter and sustainable behaviour, I will a) present data on societal perceptions of microplastics and marine litter, b) show how social and psychological factors are connected to concern and behavioural intentions (e.g., the role of perceived risk, values, social norms), c) discuss the effects educational and creative interventions can have. I will conclude that communications and interventions should be developed based on scientific insights into human thought and behaviour and evaluated systematically. Finally I will provide a brief discussion of the limitations and challenges that are unique to research with people and invite the audience’s thoughts and comments.
Pahl S & Wyles KJ 2016 'The human dimension: how social and behavioural research methods can help address microplastics in the environment' Analytical Methods, 9, 1404-1411.
Pahl S, Wyles KJ & Thompson RC 2017 'Channelling passion for the ocean towards plastic pollution' Nature Human Behaviour, 10, 697-699.
- 08:50 The challenges for governance of changing Arctic ecosystems
Authors: Robert Stephenson ( Department of Fisheries and Oceans )
What are the major challenges of governance in changing Arctic ecosystems? This paper compares the needs, challenges and priorities articulated in the Arctic with those identified in recent studies of temperate systems in Canada and Australia. As in other social-ecological systems there is a need for a coordinated, comprehensive treatment of sustainability that includes environmental, social (including cultural), economic and institutional considerations. There is a need to overcome four major deficiencies in management: 1) the complexity of different activities managed by different authorities in different ways, 2) an incomplete and different suite of objectives, 3) insufficient evaluation of cumulative impacts and 4) insufficient considerations of trade-offs. Further, there is need for management that can adapt quickly and appropriately to ecosystem change. This paper examines the type of framework that would be required to support management of full-spectrum sustainability in a changing Arctic.
- 09:10 Everything is changing or this changes everything: Arctic climate change impacts and responses
Authors: Martin Sommerkorn ( WWF Arctic Programme )
People at local, regional and global scales are impacted by the consequences of climate-induced changes in Arctic systems. Across these scales, humanity grapples with responding to the already occurring and projected risks of Arctic change. What are the consequences and impacts, and what responses are brought forward to mitigate the drivers, reduce the risks and build resilience? The presentation will update and reflect on the knowledge of climate-induced trends and trajectories of important Arctic systems and of ways on how to respond to associated impacts and risks. Are we meeting the challenge?
- 09:30 Developing Technologies in the Developing Arctic
Authors: Nettie La Belle-Hamer ( University of Alaska Fairbanks )
While the Arctic is sparsely populated compared to many regions of the world, there are communities that continue to thrive as they have for many generations. These communities look to balance keeping the traditional languages and cultures alive with the desire to learn and grow technology. New and innovative technologies will be critical components of building and maintaining a ‘Smart Arctic’. As we work towards inclusion of these into the existing lifestyle, we seek to engage in balanced economic development and informed decision-making with the local communities. Some of these new technologies are already growing in the Arctic, such as telecommunications and connectivity. But we need to do more to create educational opportunities, advanced health care, and workforce development while preserving cultural important traditions such as subsistence activities. As we advance the technological needs of traditional communities, satellite technology will become more important. What role can space-based technology play in the future smart Arctic? What do we have in place now that can lead to growth of the technologies that are sustainable and supportive of the Arctic communities?
Wednesday 23rd January 2019
08:30 - 10:15